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Decentralized Opportunities And Constraints To Poverty Alleviation Environmental Sciences Essay

“ Decentralization has become a cardinal issue in development policy in the past two decennaries. Whereas the advantages and hazards of reassigning power and resources to local grades of authorities have been debated for rather some clip, it is merely really late that the linkages between decentalisation and poorness decrease have been addressed ” ( Dr J.Y Kokor 2003 )

The construct of decentalisation defies distinct definition. Rondinelli ( 1981 ) defines decentalisation as the “ transportation of authorization to program, make determinations and pull off public maps from a higher degree of authorities to any single, organisation or bureau at a lower degree ” . To Smith ( 1985 ) decentalisation means “ change by reversaling the concentration of disposal at a individual Centre and confabulating powers on local authorities ” . Rondenelli and Cheema in 1983 defined the construct decentalisation to affect the “ transportation of duties for planning, direction and resource elevation, and allotment from the cardinal authorities and its bureaus to: ( a ) field units of cardinal authorities ministries or bureaus, ( a ) subsidiary units or degrees of authorities, ( degree Celsius ) semi-autonomous public governments or corporations, ( vitamin D ) area-wide, regional or functional governments, or ( vitamin E ) non-governmental private or voluntary organisations ” . For the intent of this work, this definition will be adopted.

Decentralization hence consists of a transportation of public maps from higher grades to lower grades of administration. It can be administrative ( transportation of civil retainers and public maps to the local degree ) , financial ( degeneration of financial resources and gross bring forthing powers ) , political ( degeneration of determination doing powers ) or a mixture of these. Planning, ( allowing the authorization to people at the grass root degree to defend their developmental class by originating and implementing their ain developmental docket with limited intercession of the authorities ) . ( Mohammed sulemana 2009 ) .

There are five major signifiers of decentalisation ; these are denationalization, deregulating degeneration, deputation and deconcentration ( The New Local Governance System, 1996 ) . The signifier of decentalisation of involvement to this write up is degeneration.

Decentralization in Ghana is to give an alternate face to poverty relief particularly at the rural degree. This is to be achieved through:

Improved local economic development and poorness decrease through, supplying services that serve as production and distribution inputs for local houses and enterprisers ; lending to a legal and institutional environment that is contributing for development ; organizing cardinal local populace, private and community histrions in making partnerships that promote development. Other grounds for the acceptance of decentalisation as a system of administration in the state included:

To convey Improved administration: that is, if people see that their interactions with elective decentralized Governments will take to determinations that are more consistent with their wants than those made by higher degrees ; they feel better connected to decentralized authoritiess. Bing able to act upon public personal businesss in at least some modest ways, which straight affect them and empowers people, giving them a new sense of control and liberty. ( Dr J Y Korkor 2003 )

In add-on, it was besides to convey about improved efficiency: because decentralized authoritiess are said to be closer to the people, have good entree to local information and understand local context good. ( Dr J Y Korkor 2003 )

Last, it was to take to improved equity: because if decentralised authoritiess are familiar with local fortunes, they may be in the best place to more equitably administer public resources and mark poorness within their ain legal powers. ( Dr J Y Korkor 2003 )

A brief overview of the current poorness state of affairs in the state indicates that, poorness is still on the dominance in some countries whilst it is cut downing in other countries. ( Ghana Human development study 2007 ) .

The nucleus of this system is the engagement of the rural people and those at the underside of the societal ladder to convey to bear their thoughts in turn toing underdevelopment. The extent to which these people are involved and at what phase, are important to the relief of poorness in the state.

Local authorities or the District Assemblies have been established as planning governments by the local authorities act of 1993 ( move 462 ) and the national development be aftering systems act of 1994 ( move 480 ) . Some of such functions to be performed by the assembly include the followers:

“ Help the territory assembly and the sub-districts councils in the induction, preparation and execution of undertakings and programmes.

Fix the territory assembly one-year and average term development programs.

Rede the territory assembly on coordination, monitoring, and rating of all territory development programs ” .etc ( Decentralization Policies and Practices, Participants Manual, 1993 )

“ The construct and pattern of participatory planning ( besides called diversely bottom-up planning, sub-district planning, etc. ) is non new in Ghana, nevertheless the nexus to the national planning system is either weak or nonexistent ” . ( Ernest Tay Awoosah, John Cofie Agamah, Ansah Sampson Kwarteng, Bm Oppong And Francis Owusu 2004 ) .

District planning and organizing units ( DPCU ) guarantee that be aftering maps of the District Assembly are undertaken. In this respect, DPCU ‘s are required to transport out the following undertaking:

“ Advise and supply a secretariat for the territory assembly in its planning, scheduling, monitoring, rating and organizing maps.

Organize the planning activities of the sector development related departments/ bureaus in the territory.

Synthesize the schemes related to the development of the territory into a comprehensive and cohesive model.

Formulate and update territory development programs.

Provide information required for planning at the national degree. ( Decentralization Policies and Practices, Participants Manual, 1993 )

In acting, and organizing maps, DPCU ‘s are hence required to play the lead function in advancing the outward-oriented maps of the metropoliss every bit good as in organizing the undertaking of the sector sections to run into the demands of citizens for basic services ” ( Act 462: 1993 ) .

Poverty on the other manus can be defined as the inability of a individual to entree some indispensable day-to-day demands of life, such as H2O, nutrient, shelter etc.

Poverty in Ghana is by and large described as a rural phenomenon. The statement that “ poorness in Ghana is fundamentally a rural phenomenon ” is a common statement in the survey of poorness in Ghana ( Mohamed sulemana 2009 ) . Ghana Statistical Service publication buttressed this statement, which stated that, there is a general diminution in poorness degrees in Ghana nevertheless, the proportion of the population defined as hapless increased during the period for Rural Savannah ( GSS, 2000 ) . It ended up with still the averment that, poorness is basically a rural phenomenon. ( Mohammed sulemana 2009 )

Advancement towards accomplishing the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) in Ghana is described as slow and alongside the inquiry of increasing assistance money, the development of pro-poor establishments is important. Decentralized planning would non be implemented entirely for the direct intent of poorness relief, but the ensuing alterations in the institutional architecture are really likely to impact on administration, engagement and the efficiency of public-service bringing, all of which are of import variables for poorness results. ( Johannes Jutting, Elena Corsi, and Albrecht Stockmayer 2005 )


A brief overview of the current poorness state of affairs in the state indicates that, there is a huge disparity between the southern sector and the northern sector.

It is apparent that, the function of decentralised planning in poorness decrease is non accomplishing the desired consequences which can be attributed to the inability of the authorities to implement the construct efficaciously. The nucleus of this system is the engagement of the rural people and those at the underside of the societal ladder to convey to bear their thoughts in turn toing underdevelopment. The extent to which these people are involved and at what phase, are important to the relief of poorness in the state.

Several challenges militate against the execution of the decentalisation construct in Ghana, some of such challenges include:

“ Inadequate financess for the full operational of the decentralized planning construct, low salary wage for territory assembly and country council staff ensuing in high turnover rates, Inadequate qualified forces, unequal logistics, corruptness, bureaucratism, Clash of Authority between the Administrative Class and the Planning and Budget Class ” etc ( Mohammed sulemana 2009 )

For the procedure of decentalisation to be complete and for it to be successful, there are certain stipulations, which have to be in a state at a given clip. Harmonizing to the Human Development Report ( 2003 ) , these requirements include:

a ) Effective province capacity ;

B ) Empowered, committed and competent local governments ; and

degree Celsius ) Engaged informed and organized citizens and civil societies.

Associating these requirements to the Ghanese state of affairs, the resulting inquiry demands to be answered ;

Was Ghana prepared for decentralized planning before presenting it?

In reexamining the committedness, competence of the local governments, it is clear that, the local governments in the state do non understand the construct of decentalisation yet they are tasked to implement it at the local degree. There is hence a local centralisation of the decentalisation system in the state. How are local governments chosen? What is their understanding degree of the construct of decentalisation planning? Are inquiries this survey intends to reply subsequently?

However a figure of factors hamper effectual decentralized planning execution, including limited fiscal and human resources. As a consequence, constructions like the town/area councils, which provide the nexus between the community and District Assembly ( DA ) , are either working ill or make non be. In pattern, participatory planning has normally non been applied in sub-district planning, except in planning for specific undertakings. ( Ernest Tay Awoosah, John Cofie Agamah, Ansah Sampson Kwarteng, Bm Oppong And Francis Owusu, 2004 ) .

Therefore, the job being investigated is the Ineffectiveness of the Decentralized Planning System to Alleviate Poverty in the Lawra District.


Main inquiry ; chances and restraints of decentralised planning to poverty relief. A instance survey of the Lawra District, in the Upper West Region.


How has decentralized planning impacted on the poorness state of affairs of the lawra territory?

What was, and is the poorness state of affairs in Ghana after the debut of the decentralized planning construct?

How are the local people get bying with the decentralized planning construct?

Are the local people good informed about their functions and duties with the new decentralized planning system?

Are the local governments holding the needed accomplishments to implement the decentralised planning policy?

What is the manner frontward to the effectual execution of the decentralized planning construct?

How are local governments ( District Assemblies ) implementing the decentalisation construct in the state?


The chief aim of this survey is to place chances and restraints of decentralised planning, how it has impacted on poorness and suggest recommendations for consideration.


To measure how decentralised planning is implemented in the lawra territory.

How the local people perceive the construct of decentralized planning and how it affects their life criterions.

To find the relationship between decentralized planning and poorness.

To happen out what can be done to expeditiously implement the decentralized planning construct at the grass root degree

To urge ways through which the rural people can take advantage of the decentralized planning system and better their life criterions.


Governments after the other in Ghana, have ever made it a primary aim to better upon the life criterions of its people regardless of age, sex, ethnicity amongst others. In seeking to better upon the criterions of life of its people, the authorities of Ghana introduced the policy of decentalisation and for that affair, decentralized planning. Planing for development before the debut of the construct was fundamentally from the cardinal authorities to the local degree with virtually no engagement of the local grades.

In order therefore, to acquire the rural people involved, and to take charge of their ain development docket, the Ghana authorities in 1988 introduced the decentralised policy and in 1994, through the passage of act 462 mandated the territory planning and organizing unit of the territory assembly, to take charge of be aftering the development of the territories. ( Mohammed Sulemana 2009 ) .

In explicating the construct of decentralized planning therefore, it is apparent that, its aim is non being achieved as statistics indicate that, rural every bit good as urban poorness is on the dominance in the state ( GSS 2000 ) .

This survey is hence important in the sense that, it will place the constrictions and perchance good patterns in the execution of decentralized planning at the local degree and besides urge schemes to better the decentralised planning procedure, with peculiar mention to the Lawra District.


The focal point of this survey is on the opportunities/constraints to the execution of the decentralized planning construct in the Lawra District from the position of all stakeholders at the territory degree. ( I.e. District Assembly, Area/Town Councils, Unit Committees, Assembly Members, Community Members, Development Organizations Operating in the District, etc. )


The District is one of the Nine Districts that make up the Upper West Region. It lies in the north western corner of the Upper West Region in Ghana between Long. 2A°25 W and 2A°45W and Lat. 10A°20 and 11A°00. It is bounded to East and south by the Jirapa and Lambussie Districts and to the North and West by the Republic of Burkina Faso. The entire country of the District is put at 1051.2 square kilometer. This constitutes about 5.7 % of the Region ‘s entire land country, which is estimated at 18,476 square kilometer. ( Lawra DMTDP 2006-2009 )

The 2000 National Population and Housing nose count consequences put the District ‘s population at 87,525. This is approximately 15.2 % of the Region ‘s entire population of 576,583. This comprises 40,804 males and 46,723 females stand foring 47 % and 53 % severally and the sex ratio is 87.3 males to 100 females ( Beginning: GSS, March 2002 ) . There is intense force per unit area on natural resources peculiarly land for agricultural production every bit good as socio-economic installations ( DPCU 2009 ) .

The growing rate of the District is 1.7 % . This is nevertheless below the national growing rate of 2.7 % . The current estimated population of the territory as at December 2009 stands at 101, 600. This comprises 53,616 adult females and 47,546 work forces. ( Beginning: DPCU 2009 ) .

The Lawra District Assembly, is the highest political and administrative organic structure in the territory, and is charged with the duty of formulating and put to deathing programs, programmes, undertakings and schemes for the overall sustainable development of the people in the territory.

The political and administrative authorization of the Lawra District Assembly is characterized by efficient and decentralised direction of public policy where the people are empowered to take part to the full in the determination devising procedure and where a provender back to such determinations are received by the citizens/people. ( DPCU 2009 )

The Lawra District is made up of 50 four Assembly individuals. Out of this sum, 30 six ( 36 ) of them are elective members whilst 16 ( 16 ) are authorities appointees. This together with the District Chief Executive and the Member of Parliament, who are ex-officio members, gives a sum of 50 four members. Out of this figure, there are merely nine ( 9 ) females and 40 five males. ( DPCU 2009 )

Decision devising within the territory includes greater engagement of all cross subdivisions of people in the territory, particularly on the portion of adult females and the handicapped has greatly improved. This success chalked is as a consequence of the development of community action programs which feeds into the District Medium Term Development Plan ( DMTDP ) ( 2010-2013 )


The survey is merely to do mention to deconcentrate planning and non sing other facets of decentalisation such as administrative Decentralization, Fiscal Decentralization, and Political Decentralization amongst others.

Besides, the survey is limited in footings of spacial coverage in the sense that, it is merely limited to the Lawra District which might non give meaningful justification at the terminal that, the findings of the survey will use to other Districts in the part and likely the state at big, this therefore makes it hard for one to cognize the exact image of the position of Decentralized Planning in the state.


The thesis will be presented in five chief chapters:

Chapter one will fundamentally consist of the followers: background/introduction to the survey, job statement, research inquiries and aims and besides significance of the survey, pick of survey country, restrictions and organisation of study.

Chapter Two will dig on the reappraisal of relevant bing literature and besides concentrate on the historical and conceptual models of the survey.

However chapter three will turn to methodological and analytical models of the work. The point of focal point will be on the sampling techniques, informations aggregation and analytical methods.

More so, Chapter four will be centered on presentation of instance survey on the findings of the execution of the Decentralized Planning in the Lawra District.

Chapter five shall include a sum-up of the survey, drawn decisions from the survey conducted and eventually recommendations on the manner frontward.

Chapter TWO


In reexamining existing literature for the intent of this survey, all relevant available literature, yesteryear and nowadays, difficult and soft, published and unpublished, studies, intelligence points etc that will add intending to deconcentrate planning will be reviewed.

In reexamining literature, the following subjects will be considered:

Background of decentralization/decentralized planning in Ghana

“ Decentralization is used chiefly in Ghana to intend a procedure where the cardinal authorities portions some of its powers and resources to local organic structures, which include: territory assemblies, sub territory constructions, and the parts ” . ( Dr J. y. Kokor 2001 )

“ Ghana ‘s decentalisation system is therefore a organic structure of policy enterprises and steps dwelling of many mutualist parts including establishments and organisations: the functions, duties and inter-relationships of these institutions/organizations: processs, regulations and ordinances and guidelines for determination devising and action based on rules ” . ( Dr J. y. Kokor 2001 )

“ The decentalisation system in Ghana derives its kernel, nature, spirit and substance from the basic jurisprudence, i.e. the fundamental law and a figure of statute law and Torahs which include: the local authorities act: 1993 ( move 462 ) and the legislative instrument, 1994 L.I 1589 ) : the civil retainers jurisprudence, 1993 ( PNDCL 327 ) : the national development planning ( system ) act, 1994 ( move 480 ) and the District Assembly Common Fund Act, 1994 ( move 455 ) ” ( Dr J. y. Kokor 2001 )

Four cardinal constituents can be identified with Ghana ‘s decentalisation system: these are: political, administrative, participatory development planning and financial decentalisation. ( Kokor 1998 ) . For the intent of this survey, participatory development planning will function as the focal point.

A new decentralized planning and determination devising system which was promulgated in the late 1980 ‘s is now being strengthened and operationalized. Basically, the system is designed to reconstitute the political and public administrative machinery of Ghana for development and determination devising at both the national and local degrees. ( Manual for Good Governance And Development At Local Level. TEPPCON 2006 )

Planing in Ghana earlier now, was fundamentally the duty of those in authorization particularly at the place of authorities. Planing for the development of rural every bit good as urban countries in Ghana was carried out without the engagement f the people. Engagement in planning was hence non a major facet of the planning procedure. Government in recognizing the importance of the engagement of donees in the development planning procedure in 1988 introduced the national development planning policy which was to guarantee that, be aftering in the state was done in a participatory and unfastened mode were by the local governments such as the District Assemblies and the area/town councils will play a major function in the planning procedure. ( NDPC guidelines 2005 ) .

Participatory development be aftering stemming from the brief background of the construct of decentalisation came into being with the passage of the national development planning system act 1994, act 480. ( NDPC guidelines 2005 ) .

The act establishes a decentralized planning system and specifies establishments and bureaus which are be aftering governments, their maps, functions and processs. Every territory assembly is established as a planning authorization harmonizing to subdivisions 46 ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) of the local authorities act, 1993 ( move 462 ) . The planning maps and the processs of the territory assembly as a planning authorization are specified in subdivision 2 of the above act ( ( Dr J. y. Kokor 2001 ) ) and will be reviewed critically to give significance to this work. Community engagement is required as an indispensable and built-in portion of the democratisation of the planning procedure. Section 3, subdivisions ( 1 ) ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) of the act ( act 480 ) spells out the chief characteristics of community engagement. ( Dr J.Y Korkor

The study intends to look at the grounds for the debut of the decentralized planning system in Ghana, the ends and aims that are to be achieved. Harmonizing to Mohamed Sulemana 2009, some of such ends and aims include:

“ The engagement of the local public in their development procedure

Ownership of the development procedure by the local grades

Giving the chance for the grassroots people to find their precedence countries for development ” .

This survey will besides look at other goals/objectives particularly as contained in the national development planning act and the decentralized planning act which will be evaluated through assemblage and analysis of informations and recommendations and decisions drawn.

Execution of the decentralized planning system in Ghana.

The new local authorities construction

The new local authorities construction operational in the state will be analyzed to determine the channels of communicating and to corroborate or otherwise how effectual it is.

Engagement and Implementation of decentralized planning at the District Level, Area/town council degree, Unit commission degree, and Community degree.

Decentralized planning in Ghana is designed to include all stakeholders from the grassroots level through to the territory degree and to the regional and national degree severally ( move 462 ) . Planing in sum-up is said to take the underside up attack. Engagement in planning is supposed to take the underside up attack and to acquire the grassroots people committed to the class of development. The execution of drawn programs is fundamentally left in the custodies of the territory assembly, the cardinal authorities and other development spouses. Execution of development programmes and undertakings depends upon when the territory assembly/ government/donor spouses get the needful resources to transport out these projects/programmes. The communities at this phase drama limited functions as they do non hold much influence as to when the execution of the undertaking or programme should take topographic point.

Opportunities to effectual Decentralized Planning

The debut of the decentralized planning policy in Ghana is the biggest chance that exists to effectual decentralized planning in Ghana ( Manual For Good Governance And Development At Local Level. TEPPCON 2006 )

The constitution of the construction of decentalisation from the national degree to the community degree offers a great chance for the successful execution of the policy.


The execution of the decentralized planning system in Ghana is noted non to be on the right terms in that, the aims that are being set for its accomplishment are simply being achieved and besides at a really slow rate ( DPCU 2009 ) . it ‘s apparent hence that, some grounds account for the ineffectualness of its execution, which harmonizing to Mohammed sulemana ( 2009 ) include: Inadequate District Assembly Common Fund which is the chief fiscal back bone of most northern territories, because the internal generated financess is nil to compose place about.

Second, low internal generated financess prevent the execution of the construct to the full. In add-on, low wages of workers at the territory and area/ town council degrees besides account for the dreamy attack of staff to their work. Other factors mentioned include: corruptness, Bureaucracy, unequal logistics, unequal qualified forces, political intervention, and ignorance particularly on the portion of the community people, amongst others.

Chapter THREE


A Lot of factors comes into drama when 1 has to take a research design. Some of such factors include the undermentioned: clip, resources, the researches cognition of the field under survey, the type of informations to be collected, range of the survey, amongst others ( Twumasi, 2001 ) .

“ A research design is a program, construction and scheme of probe so conceived as to obtain replies to research inquiries or jobs. The program is the complete strategy or plan of the research. It includes an lineation of what the research worker will make from composing the hypotheses and their operational deductions to the concluding analysis of informations ” . ( Kerlinger, ( 1986 ) as in Kumar, ( 1996 ) .

The survey design is a blend of both qualitative and quantitative appraisal of the execution of the decentralized planning system in Ghana.

Datas on its execution will be gathered through the conductivity of focal point group treatment particularly at the community degree, questionnaires disposal and face to confront interview at the area/town council degree, at the territory degree with the District Assembly cardinal staff ( DCE, DCD, DPO, DBA etc ) representative of development spouses in the territory, amongst others.

The development of the aims of the survey will give the research worker a focal point on the type of informations he/she demands to roll up in order to reply the research inquiries.

Existing relevant literature on the capable affair will be reviewed for parts and updates, choice of trying processs will be preceded by informations aggregation processs and tools.

Reviewing bing relevant literature before traveling to the field will assist the research worker addition in-depth cognition about the capable affair and besides enable him/her to put realistic indexs that will assist step efficiency in the execution of decentralized planning and besides place chances and restraints to break the hereafter.


Primary and secondary beginnings of informations will be collected. The aggregation of informations from both beginnings will assist mensurate the efficiency of the decentralized planning procedure.


Schemes to be employed in garnering primary informations will include the disposal of questionnaire to officers at the territory area/town council and the unit degrees. Questionnaire can be filled by the respondent on his/her ain, dependent on the educational background of the respondent. In a neither state of affairs whereby the respondent can neither read nor compose, the research worker will administrate the questionnaire in a common linguistic communication understood by both.


Datas from this beginning will be gathered largely from published diaries, books, addresss, legal instruments ( LI ) , District Annual and Medium Term Plans, The Internet etc


Both chance and non chance trying techniques will be employed by the research worker in transporting out the survey which in the research worker ‘s sentiment will assist bring forth a representative sample for generalisation.


“ Probability sampling is the process in which the pick of respondents is guided by the chance rule, harmonizing to which every unit of the mark population has an equal, deliberate and non-zero chance of being included in the sample ” ( Sarantakos, 2005 ) .

3.2.2 Simple RANDOM Sampling

By definition, simple random trying takes into history the fact that all the elements or persons in the population acquire equal opportunity of choice. The research worker must give Numberss to all the elements in the selected country. The basic premise underlying simple random sampling is that the elements or the persons in the population are judged to be homogenous ( Twumasi, 2001 ) .

This technique will be used to choose four ( 4 ) functional area/ town councils out of the eight area/town councils. This technique is to guarantee that all the eight area/town councils have an equal opportunity of being selected. Area/Town councils will be given Numberss and the lottery method will be used to choose the assorted country councils. In the same vena, all development spouses in the field of decentralised planning operating in the District will be selected with the same method.


“ As the name indicates, non-probability sampling processs do non use the regulations of chance theory, do non guarantee representativeness, and are largely used in explorative research and qualitative analysis ” ( Sarantakos, 2005 ) .

3.2.4 PURPOSIVE Sampling

“ As the name implies the research worker adhering to the aims of the survey, selects respondents who can reply his research inquiries. With good computation and a relevant research scheme, he can pick the respondents he wants to be included in his sample. The purposive sample is used in impressionistic surveies, in pilot and pretesting processs and when one wishes to derive a speedy penetration into a societal phenomenon ” ( Twumasi, 2001 ) .

This method will be employed by the research worker in that, all the three workers at the country council will be interviewed that is, the president, secretary and the financial officer. This method will besides be employed in the choice of unit commission members to guarantee that merely knowing members in the field of survey are interviewed whose information can lend to the successful execution of the decentralized planning construct in Ghana.

The same tool will be employed in the choice of the caputs of development organisations runing in the field of decentralised planning in the territory for interview. Cardinal staff of the District Assembly such as the District Chief Executive, District Coordinating Director, District Planning Officer and Budget Officer will wholly be identified by this same tool for interview.


The sample size for the survey will be four Area/Town Councils out of a sample frame of eight area/town councils in the Lawra District. The research worker will cipher 50 % of the eight area/town councils in the Lawra District to get at four area/town councils.

To the research worker, 50 % of a sample population is representative plenty to pull meaningful decisions.


“ The procedure of informations analysis requires skill, forbearance and thoroughness ” ( Twumasi, 2001 ) . The procedure of informations analysis is a uninterrupted one, it involves many phases. At every phase, the research worker must inquire inquiries associating to his aims in order to obtain meaningful replies. In this respect, the chief constructs in the survey ‘s aims must be used to analyze the information. ( twumasi 2001 )

The Statistical Package for Social Scientist ( SPSS ) will be the chief analytical tool employed in the analysis of informations collected from the field. Datas that can non be analyzed utilizing this tool will be descriptively explained.