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Prospects Of Livelihood Of Farmers Environmental Sciences Essay


This reappraisal article is focused on the jobs associated with the husbandmans of Dhar Block in Kandi part of Gurdaspur territory of Punjab and how Agro engineering in this country can assist to better socio-economically the support of husbandmans of Dhar Block. The Department of Biotechnology has sanctioned this undertaking with the position to heighten the support of husbandmans of Dhar Block part. Dhar Block holding rippling topography and deficient handiness of H2O, it is hard for the cultivation of harvest workss. The economic status of husbandmans of this part is hapless as compared to other blocks of Punjab. The fiscal feasibleness of selected Aromatic workss, viz. Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) , Citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus ) , Palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martini ) , Patchouli ( Pogostemon cablin ) and Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ) has been studied. It has been found that the net net income from the cultivation of Aromatic workss is higher than the other harvests and these workss can be cultivated as an surrogate harvest. The husbandmans are encouraged to cultivate Aromatic workss by supplying them with scientific and good cultivation pattern. They are provided planting stuff and assured by offering them buyback strategy. Aromatic workss being nonperishable, husbandmans may non endure if the market rate is down and can turn out as an alternate option for earning.

Keywords Dhar Block, Aromatic workss, Livelihood, Buyback strategy


Gurdaspur a territory of Punjab lies in the Northwest corner of the Indo-Pak frontier along the Indian side of the river Ravi and falls under the Jalandhar division of the province. A part of the territory is besides situated beyond the river Ravi. The territory comprises a entire geographical country of 3,56,000 hectares ( 7.1 % of the province country ) and comprised of five sub-divisions, 14 development blocks, 5 tehsils and 1642 small towns. It has a entire population of 17.54 hundred thousand of which 13.71 hundred thousand ( 78 % ) is rural and spread over to 1,630 small towns. Of the rural population, 7,20,046 ( 52.5 % ) are male while 6,51,350 ( 47.5 % ) are female. The literacy degree among male ( 55.3 % ) is besides higher than female ( 44.7 % ) . Entire country of the territory is 3,562 Sq. Km Total farming households in the territory are 12,13,208 of which 5082 agriculture are scheduled caste. About 36.6 % retentions are fringy ( & lt ; 1ha ) and 20.2 % are little ( 1-2 hour angle ) . There are merely about 2,359 farm retentions which have the mean farm size of & gt ; 10 hour angle. ( Ref )

There are chiefly two seasons i.e. summer and winter. The summer season falls between the months of April to July and the winters from November to March. The summers are every bit hot as 440C or even higher. June is the hottest month and January is the coldest 1. Largely the rainfall occurs in the month of July. Winter rains are experienced during January and February and dust storm occurs in the month of May and June. The mean rainfall of the territory is 875.4 milimeters which starts from July and continues up to the terminal of August. The dirt in this part is fertile alluvial, loamy with clay content below 10 % . It is divided into three zones, i.e. Submountainous, Kandi and Plain. They contain little measures of calcium hydroxide but the periclase content is high. They are low in N, medium in P and medium to high in potassium hydroxide but the measures available are low. The agribusiness is dependent to a big extent on the nature of its dirts which in bend, is influenced materially by climatic factors.

( Ref ; Gurdaspur District Punjab: hypertext transfer protocol: // % 20DESCRIPTION % 20OF % 20DISTRICT % 20GURDASPUR.pdf cited on 24.7.12 )

Dhar Block is located in Kandi country of Gurdaspur territory of Punjab. The topography of this country being really undulating and submountaneous. Furthermore, besides traversed by legion little and large seasonal watercourses called choes ( Ref ) .A There are about 140 Major and Medium Spate Rivers ( choes ) that carry the brassy inundations from the Shivalik foothills which causes dirt eroding and discharge into the fields of Punjab doing frequent inundations ( Ref ) .A The one-year overflow from the country is about 85 million three-dimensional metre, which bring in brassy inundations during monsoons, which cause big scale desolation of top dirt, doing the land in-fertile. Most of the agricultural land of Dhar Block depends on rains. The demand of H2O for Rabi and Kharif harvests can non be met because most of the rainfall occurs in 2A? months merely and 40 % of this H2O besides gets wasted and instead causes inundations. Drawn-out period of drought mitigate against advanced agricultural techniques. The H2O tabular array is really deep. The land retention of the husbandmans are really little and they do non hold the economic capacity to put in deep tubing Wellss. The agribusiness production in the country is therefore really low. Average agriculture output has been merely 700 Kg/Hectare against State ‘s 4500 Kg/Hectare. The cropping strength is lowest in Dhar block ( 158 % ) as comparison to Kalanaur, Dera Baba Nanak & A ; Bamial block where the strength is ( 200 % ) . ( Ref: hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

Gurdaspur has two types of part viz. Sub Mountainous Undulating Zone A and Undulating Plain Zone. In Sub Mountainous Rippling Zone Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sugarcane, Ground Nut, Mango are suited harvests for cultivation whereas in Rippling Plain Zone, Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sugarcane, Groundnut, , Sesamum, Kharif Pulses, ( Moong, Mesh, Arhar ) , gm, Rape & A ; Mustard, Linseed, Lentil, Peas, Fruits, Vegetables can be cultivate successfully.A

( Referee: hypertext transfer protocol: // # )

The husbandmans in this are populating below poorness line because of environment conditions. Suitable harvests for cultivation are Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sugarcane, Ground Nut, Mango, Sesamum, Kharif Pulses, ( Moong, Mesh, Arhar ) , gm, Rape & A ; Mustard, Linseed, Lentil, Peas, Fruits, Vegetables.A But these harvests are perishable and bring forth less gross. Aromatic workss are non-perishable and can be cultivated throughout the twelvemonth and assist bring forth gross. This could better the conditions of the husbandmans to some extent. The present undertaking is the inaugural attempt to cultivate Aromatic Plants in the Northern Region which will assist to promote Economic Statues of husbandmans in the part. Although there is a immense demand of aromatic workss globally, the production of aromatic workss is non run intoing up to the grade due to miss of proficient knowhow such as cultivation and postharvest processing ( Purohit, 2004 ) . Since there is economic viability in cultivation of aromatic workss, they are considered as an alternate harvest as an earning option for the husbandmans.

The specific aims of the present survey were: ( a ) to happen out the land for cultivation in Dhar Block ( B ) to promote and give proficient knowhow to the husbandmans for cultivation of aromatic workss. ( degree Celsius ) to supply distillment unit for the extraction of indispensable oil in the country of Dhar Block part. And ( vitamin D ) selling of oil extracted from the workss.

Why aromatic workss?

Medicinal and Aromatic workss ( MAPs ) are known to guarantee the health care demands and enhance supports of 1000000s of rural people ( Phondani et al. , 2011 ) . They hold an of import place in the socio-cultural, wellness attention and religious sphere of rural people of India. It is known that “ Health for All ” continues to be a distant dream for India. Increase in life anticipation and jobs of overcrowding, air and H2O pollution, has increased the hazard of wellness jobs such as degenerative diseases, emphasis, allergic reactions, diabetes, osteo- arthritic arthritis, neurological and memory upsets. This affects quality of life, productiveness and wellbeing of future coevalss. India has immense comparative advantage in MAPs sector over other states since it is one of the 12 mega biodiversity centres and holding 7 % of universe ‘s biodiversity. It has medicative workss in the Himalaya to marine ecosystem and from desert to rain woods. 70-80 % of the market demand is met from wild ( Prasad and Bhattacharya, 2003 ) . This has badly affected the handiness of MAPs in their natural home ground. MAPs are collected from the wood or uncultivated wild beginnings but with increasing abiotic and biotic force per unit areas on natural home ground, a figure of species are going endangered or threatened. If non safeguarded they are likely to be nonextant in coming old ages ( Maikhuri et al. , 1998 ) . Cultivation of MAPs workss is needed to run into the turning market demand and to make a balance between the usage and preservation of MAPs ( Maikhuri, et al. , 2003 ; Muhammad, et al. , 2006 ) . In India, during the Second World War when there was acute scarceness of drugs foremost initiative to cultivate medicative workss as an income-generating activity was taken. ( Chopra, et al. , 1958 ) . Since so assorted authorities and non-government organisations initiated cultivation of medicative workss in different parts of the universe. In India, MAPs are selected as a noteworthy livelihood- focussed venture along with traditional agriculture system, which can supply husbandmans a regular income ( Uniyal, et al. , 2000, Negi, et al. , 2010 ; Newsletter ) . In North- Western Himalaya cultivation of MAPs go livelihood security option for rural dwellers.

Besides legion utilizations of Aromatic workss, they offer ( I ) higher returns than traditional harvests ; ( two ) fetch better monetary values in the market ; ( three ) can be stored for a long clip ; ( four ) and can be raised as intercrops, along with traditional harvests. ( v ) can be “ lone income options ” in waste and fringy lands. ( six ) It ensures the production of assured and unvarying quality stuff and can be act as economic driven participatory preservation. ( seven ) Essential oils or value added infusions or merchandises required for perfumery, spirit, aroma and decorative industries in add-on to aromatherapy value are other of import countries where India can lend to concern and demand globally. Harmonizing to Exim Bank ( 1997 ) , the entire domestic potency for petroleum drugs and oil infusions has been found to be around Rs 3 billion.

Recognizing the economic importance of Aromatic Plants, 16 State Agricultural Universities ( SAUs ) and 3 Regional Research Laboratories ( RRLs ) of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research ( CSIR ) are being operated by the Government of India under the strategy of VIIIth Five-Year Plan. Further, the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, has besides undertaken a strategy, named Integrated Development of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ‘ , which involves ( a ) production and distribution of quality seting stuff with aid to the implementing bureaus and ( B ) puting up distillment units with fiscal. The fiscal support for preparation of progressive husbandmans has besides been made available ( Purohit, 2004 ) .

There are some specific aromatic workss that are suited for all debatable dirts, sodic, rainfed lands, dry land conditions and about all sorts of unutilized and under utilised lands for better wage to the agriculture community. The undermentioned workss are selecte for the big scale cultivation in Dhar Block.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, has besides undertaken a strategy, named Integrated Development of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ‘ , which involves ( a ) production and distribution of quality seting stuff with aid to the implementing bureaus @ Rs 40,000 per hectare, and ( B ) puting up distillment units with fiscal aid limited to 75 per cent of the existent cost or Rs 0.75 hundred thousand per unit, whichever is less. The fiscal support of Rs 1,000 per individual for preparation of progressive husbandmans has besides been made available ( Purohit, 2004 ) .

Aromatic Plants and Essential Oil

Aromatic ( Aroma Producing ) workss are those workss which produce a certain type of olfactory property. Their olfactory property is due to the presence of indispensable oil with chemical components that contain at least one benzine pealing in their chemical constellation ( Kokate, 2008 ) . These workss possess odorous volatile substances which occur as Essential oil, Gum Exudate, Balsam and Oleoresin in one or more parts, viz. , root, wood, bark, root, leaf, flower and fruit. The term indispensable oil is attendant to fragrance or aromatize because these aromas are oily in nature and they represent the kernel or the active components of the workss. They are called volatile or aeriform oils as they evaporate when exposed to air at ordinary temperatures. Essential oils are extremely concentrated, low volume, high value merchandises. The chemical constituents of indispensable oils can be divided into two chief classs, the hydrocarbon monoterpenes, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes, every bit good as some oxides, phenoplasts and sulfur and N incorporating stuff ( References ) .

The universe of indispensable oils has come out from the narrow field of definition to a broad assortment of applications in spirits ( confectionery, ice-creams ) , unwritten hygiene, baccy, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, soaps, perfumery, aerated Waterss germicides, agarbathis ( Joy, et al. , ) and in about all domains of human activity. In the universe broad spirit and aroma market, indispensable oils constitute about 17 per cent. The estimation of universe production of indispensable oils varies from 40,000 to 60,000 dozenss per annum. The demand for spice oils is placed at 2,000 dozenss per annum. Out of a sum of about 1500 species of Aromatic workss which serve as a beginning of natural stuffs for the perfumery, information on the chemical science and belongingss of indispensable oils of merely about 500 species is known in some item at present. Of these, approximately 50 species find usage as commercial beginning of indispensable oils and olfactory property chemicals, though the figure of those holding regular and big graduated table use barely exceeds two twelve ( Reference ) .

Indian Scenario for Essential Oil

A figure of developing states have volatile oil rich vegetation but yet non to the full utilised or cultivated and the United Nation. Industrial Development Organization has taken stairss to inform on the puting up of rural based little scale indispensable oil industriesA ( Trease and Evans, 2009 ) . India is one of the few states in the universe holding varied agro climatic zones suited for the cultivation of a host of indispensable oil bearing workss. Due to increased consciousness of wellness jeopardies associated with man-made chemicals coupled with the addition cost of crude oil merchandises, the usage of indispensable oils have been bit by bit increasing. The consumers are demoing increasing penchant for natural stuff over the man-made. During the last few old ages with the jet in the production of indispensable oils it is emerging as a possible agro based industry in India ( Reference ) .

The indispensable oil industry was traditionally a bungalow industry in India. Since 1974, a figure of industrial companies have been established for big scale production of indispensable oils, margarine rosins and aroma. The indispensable oils from workss being produced in India includeA Ginger grass, Basil, Mint, A Fennel, Ajowain oil, Cedar wood oil, Celery oil, Citronella oil, Davana oil, Eucalyptus oil, Geranium oil, Lavender oil. Lemon grass oil, Mentha oil, Palmarosa oil, Patchaouli rose oil, Sandalwood oil, Turpentine oilA and Vetiver oil which are widely used in a assortment of merchandises in India. Out of these oils of Citronella, Lemongrass, Basil, Mint, Sandalwood, Palmarosa, Eucalyptus, Cedar wood, Vetiver and Geranium Rose oil, Lavender, Davana oil, oil of Khus and Ginger grass are produced in little measures. The industry of turpentine oil, and rosin from pine is a ample and good established industry in India holding 10,000 – 25000 dozenss one-year production of the oil. Before 1960, Menthol was non produced in India but the debut of Nipponese batch, Mentha arvensis and subsequent betterments hence enabled India to green goodss over 5000 dozenss of Menthol valued Rs 100 crores and now tops the universe market in export of natural MentholA ( Handa and Kaul, ) .

At present in India about 30 % of the all right chemical used yearly in aromas and spirits come from indispensable oils. The entire ingestion of perfumery and flavorers stuff in India is about 3800 MT/annum valued at Rs 100 crores. Food, Dental, Pharmaceutical spirits portion is about 700 MT and the remainder represents perfumery. The estimated production of perfumery natural stuff is around 500 tons/annum valued at Rs 400 crores. Harmonizing to trade Development Authority of India the entire production of aroma excepting preparation for confined ingestion by the user industry is about Rs 120 crores/annum. With the addition in production of above indispensable oil, it would be possible for the state to salvage more valuable foreign exchange in the coming old ages ( Handa and Kaul, ) . Citronella oil production has reached 500 dozenss when it was wholly imported 55 old ages ago ( Handa and Kaul, ) . India ranks 26thA in import & A ; 14 in regard of export in universe in the trade of indispensable oil. USA, France, Germany are the top three states in the universe in the trade of indispensable oil. India hold about 0.7 % of import & A ; 1.1 % of export.The values of export from India during 1991-92 to 4 major states like USA, France, Germany has been to the melody Of rupees 21.2 nucleus with major portion traveling to USA ( rupees 8.2 crore ) & amp ; France ( Rs 7.39 crore ) . The universe trade in indispensable oil & A ; its merchandise is huge and the oil of major importance are Aniseed, Citronella, Clove, Geranium, Peppermint oil, Patchouli, Sandalwood and Vetiver, Mint oil, Lemongrass, Palmorosa occupies outstanding place in the universe market ( Reference ) .

Major Constraints being Faced by Farmers

The major restraints experienced by the agriculturists of the selected Aromatic workss were put under three classs, viz. Production, Processing, and Policy Constraints and have been presented in These restraints were barriers in cultivating Aromatic workss and restricted their country. To place the restraints, the speculated jobs were listed and husbandmans ‘ sentiment on them was sought. The analysis revealed that major jobs were: high initial cost in production, hapless quality of inputs and hold in their supply, deficiency of consciousness about loan feasibleness and inducements, procedural holds in obtaining loan, and high rate of involvement. There is no transparence in the trade, peculiarly on procurance beginning, monetary value, etc. Beside these, deficiency of basic substructure, organized selling system and processing installations and high processing cost were the of import processing restraints ( Shrivastava, 2000 ) . The deficiency of consciousness about export market, proliferation of illegal trade and being of mediators between husbandmans and bargainers were the major restraints from bargainers ‘ point of position ( Jairath and Agarwal, 2005 ) . A policy should be evolved to set up distillment units near the farms so that little husbandmans could besides avail of the chance.

The undertaking accent on constitution of processing or distillment units with equal capacity should be encouraged in the production parts of MAPs, so that the quality and measure of Aromatic oil could be maintained and the agriculturists would be able to acquire a higher monetary value for their green goods. Access to proficient know-how and institutional recognition on priority footing can assist advance these treating units. This activity should be backed with handiness of seting stuff and support on the bundle of good patterns for cultivation of MAPs. Research establishments should play a lead function in this way. Last, the survey has observed that attempts towards beef uping of the market information system and direction of monetary value hazards will travel a long manner in developing the positive economic system of MAPs cultivation ( Reference ) .

Constrain in selling of harvests in Punjab

Punjab is more progress in footings of agribusiness as compared to other provinces of India. Despite of good agiriculture production, the husbandmans are confronting jobs in selling of harvest workss. Singh and Kahlon ( 1969 ) have observed that committee agents and retail merchants were of import channels for selling grapes in selling of grapes in Punjab. About 41 and 40 per centum of green goods was marketed through committee agents and retail merchants severally. Further analysis showed that rating and packing formed 72.6 per centum of entire selling costs in the primary markets transit cost accounted for 10.96 per centum and 34 per centum in these markets severally. George and Singla ( 1969 ) studied selling of sweet oranges in Punjab and found that 77.39 per centum of husbandmans disposed their green goods to the pre-harvest contractors, 20.38 per cent to the distant terminus markets and remainder to the local whole salers and retail merchants and straight to consumer. Kochhar and Thakur ( 1971 ) reported that most common manner of marketing apples in Himachal Pradesh was through committee agents which accounted for about 85.63 of the marketable excess. The following of import method of sale was through pre-harvest contractors which accounted for merely 14.67 per centum of entire marketable excess.

There are some specific aromatic workss that are suited for all debatable dirts, sodic, rainfed lands, dry land conditions and about all sorts of unutilized and under utilised lands for better wage to the agriculture community. The undermentioned workss are selected for the big scale cultivation in Dhar Block ( Table 1 ) .

Table 1: Selected Aromatic workss with their active components.

Sr. No.

Name of the works

Common name

Main constituents of indispensable oil



Pogostemon cablins


patchouly intoxicant,

a-bulnesene, a- and


Sarma and Sarma, 2003


Pelargonium graveolens


Citronellol, Geraniol, Citronellyl Butyrate, Geranyl Acetate, Citronellyl Formate, 2-Phenylethyl, Citronellyl, Geranyl tiglates, guaia-6- , 9 diene, iso-menthone, linalool, 10 epi-I?-eudesmol and geranyl formate

Fraisse et al. , 1983, Mallavarapu et al. , 1997, Sashidhara et al. , 2004, Juliani et al. , 2006, Gomes et al. , 2007.


Cymbopogon martinii


geraniol, geranyl ethanoate, and linalool,

Meena et al.1990 ; Siddiqui N. A andA Garg S. C.1990.


Cymbopogon winterianus


Citronellal, citronellol and geraniol

Pino et Al, 1996.


Cymbopogon felxuosus


citral, limonene, citronellal, ?-myrcene and geraniol

Schaneberg and Khan, 2002.

Patchoulis: Pogostemon cablin Benth normally known as Patchouli is stalwart perennial works which survives best in hot and humid climatic conditions. Patchouli is usually grown in Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Madagaskar, Reunion and Seychelles. The Patchouli oil is one of the best and of import valuable perfumer ‘s natural material.It is fundamentally used as basal note in aromas since it imparts stableness to the smell profile. Because of the complexness of the Terpene composing and its smell profile, it has non been possible to germinate a man-made replacement for this oil It besides finds application in preparations of Soap and Cosmetics. The chief component of the oils are Patchouli intoxicant ( 35 % ) , Seychellene ( 3.52 % ) , Alpha-Patchoulene ( 5.87 % ) and nor Patchoulenol ( 0.55 % ) . The universe ingestion of this oil is about 2000 dozenss per twelvemonth which at present 80-90 % met by Indonesia ( Reference ) .

Geranium: Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ‘ Herit ) is normally called as Rose Scented Geranium. Today the major manufacturers of this oil are China, Egypt, Morocco and Reunion islands. This oil is extremely valued in Perfumery, Flavour and Aromatherapy. The best assortment of oil is obtained from the Reunion islands. By and large, 60-70 % of the oil, are Citronellol, Geraniol and Linalool, either free or in Ester combinations. Other Terpenoids nowadays in the oil vary harmonizing to the state of origin these components include Isomenthone, Menthone, a-Terpineol, Pinene, Epi-g-Eudesmol, 6,9 Guaiadiene. The works has a possible to turn good in comparatively dry parts of India, hence there is a immense range for India to bring forth and market this oil. Commercial Geranium oil is obtained from scented foliages of a figure of Pelargonium cultivars grown chiefly in Reunion, China, Egypt and Morocco. The planetary trade in Geranium oil is to the melody of Rs. 150 crores ( 300 tones ) per twelvemonth, most of which soon comes from China and Egypt. The Geranium oil from Reunion still sets the criterions against which oils from other beginning are valued. The one-year universe production is 300 dozenss while the demand is for 500 dozenss. The Indian perfumery market imports over 100 tones per annum. With focussed plans for advancing cultivation of this works through biotechnological and agronomical inputs, India can go the individual largest manufacturer of superior assortment of Geranium oil in the universe ( Reference ) .

Palmarosa: Cymbopogon martini ; viz Palmarosa is a perennial harvest cultivated in India for its Rosy olfactory property indispensable oil. This harvest is adapted to broad scope of dirt and climatic conditions. It can digest assorted emphasis including wet, dirt salt and alkalinity emphasis. Hence, it can be considered as a suited harvest for economic use of barren and better economic returns from the fringy land. The oil finds extended usage in Perfumery, Cosmetics, Soaps, Toiletry and Tobacco merchandises. The Rosy smell of Palmarosa oil is due to high content of entire intoxicant i.e. Geraniol and Geranyl Esters.India remains the major manufacturer and exporter of Palmarosa oil bring forthing 75-80 metric tons of oil yearly. The major components of Palmarosa oil includes Geraniol 79.85 % , Geranyl Esters 10.5 % and Linalool 2.5 % . The indispensable oils obtained from Palmarosa are widely used in cosmetics and perfumery industry. ( Baruah and Bordoloi, 1991, Sahoo, 1994, Theagarajan and Kumar, 1995 )

Citronella: Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt normally known as Java Citronella is an of import aromatic commercial harvest widely cultivated in different agroclimatic parts of Karnataka, Assam, Orissa, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. It is used as an ingredient in Washing Soaps, Perfumes, and Mosquito Repellant Creams. A good dirt with pH changing between pH 5.5-6.5 moderate H2O keeping capacity rich in humus which can be drained easy supports growing of Citronella grass. Irrigation of land is must in winter and summer although its frequence depends on nature of dirt and clime. The major oil constituents are Citral ( 9 % ) , Citronellal ( 23.80 ) , Citronellol ( 10.83 % ) , etc. The plantation one time done stopping points for about 5 old ages. Depending on assorted factors the oil outputs range from 0.5-0.7 gram % . At present the universe production of Citronella oil is about 7000 tones, the majority of which is produced in Taiwan, China, Indonesia, Mexico and West Indies. India entirely produces 300-400 tones of Citronella from Eastern Himalayan parts accounting to 80 % of the current production in the state ( Reference ) .

Lemon grass: Lemongrass belonging to Graminae household is an of import multiharvest Aromatic semen medicinal works. The indispensable oil obtained from foliages and shoots of workss has broad applications in Flavouring, Perfumery, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical industries. The major indispensable oil profile includes Citral ( 75 % ) , Geraniol ( 3.28 % ) , Geranyl ethanoate ( 2.96 % ) . The oil is used for isolation of aromatic chemicals like Citral which is responsible for the strong Lemon like smell of the oil. India ranks as the most of import manufacturer of this oil in the export trade. The Cymbopogon flexuosus ( East Indian type ) is considered to hold originated from Kerala and Southern province of India. The West Indian oil i.e. Cymbopogon citrates is chiefly cultivated in Indo-China, Madagaskar and Comoro islands. The works is really stalwart and grows under a assortment of conditions. The most ideal conditions are warm and humid clime with plentifulness of sunlight and an mean rainfall of 300 centimeters per annum. Well drained flaxen loamy dirt is most suitable for its cultivation.Generally first crop is done in 3 months and the life of the works lasts for 5 old ages. Depending on the assorted factors such as dirt birthrate, cultural patterns and climatic conditions the oil output varies between 0.2-0.4 gram % . India produces 800 dozenss of Lemongrass oil per twelvemonth while the universe demand of East Indian lemon grass oil is about 2500 tons/year ( Reference ) .

Besides the cultivation engineerings, accent will be laid on treating techniques & A ; engineerings, installing of suited distillment / extraction units, operation of field distillment units and timely conveyance of indispensable oil to the selling centres after reaping so as to continue the quality of oil. Extension services will be strengthened by proper airing of information to assorted stakeholders by keeping assorted preparation classs.

Comparative Economicss of MAPs and Other Field Crops

The comparative economic sciences of major field harvests in the selected country was worked out sing their cost of production, gross returns and net returns ( Table 2 ) . A perusing of this tabular array revealed that the highest net returns ( Rs 48,868/ha ) were obtained from oil production of Lemongrass, followed by Citronella and Patchouli. Among the viing harvests, sugar cane gave the maximal net returns of Rs 35,980/ha, which was well lower than that from the Aromatic workss. Therefore, cultivation of Aromatic workss is a more profitable concern in the fields of Uttarakhand than that of other major field harvests studied. But, due to miss of consciousness about their profitableness and low risk-bearing capacity, the husbandmans were non increasing country under Aromatic harvests. They did non switch from the traditional harvests because of high initial cost involved in the cultivation of MAPs ( Reference ) .

Sr. No.


Cost of Production

Gross returns

Net returns







All right paddy- wheat





Coarse paddy- wheat





All right paddy-mustard-vegetable pea





Lentil-coarse Paddy





Lemongrass oil





Citronella oil





Patchouli oil




Note: Cost and returns for Aromatic workss are the one-year norm

Table 2: Comparative economic sciences of major harvests in the fields of Uttarakhand ( Rs/ha ) ( Courtesy: Agricultural Economics Research Review Vol. 20 ( Conference Issue ) 2007, 548 )

Janhit Foundation has promoted the cultivation of aromatic workss to heighten the support of husbandmans six blocks viz. kharkhoda, rajpura, machara, parikhsheth generalized anxiety disorder, hastinapur and rauta of the territory Meerut, UP during April 2011-31stA March 2012. ( http: // )

The present undertaking has been sanctioned to Punjab State Council for Science & A ; Technology ( PSCST ) in coaction with KET ‘s Scientific Research Centre ( KET ‘s SRC ) , Mumbai along with Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur of Punjab Agricultural University ( PAU ) and Unati Cooperative Marketing-cum-Processing Society.A DBT-GOI has sanctioned the undertaking at a entire cost of Rs.143.83 lacs for 4 old ages duration.A The undertaking involves:

Standardization of Agro Technologies under local conditions for optimum output production of five Aromatic harvests viz. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) , Citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus ) , Palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martini ) , Patchouli ( Pogostemon cablin ) and Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ) ;

Measuring their public presentation in 50 acre country in husbandmans ‘ Fieldss,

Forming preparation programmes for capacity edifice of husbandmans,

Puting up two farm graduated table distillment units for value add-on through extraction of Essential Oils and

ArrangingA selling affiliation for its buy-back through Keva Biotech, the industrial arm of Kelkar group and Unati. ( http: // )

There are four organisations involved in this undertaking for big scale production of selected Aromatic workss at husbandman ‘s field for livelihood sweetening in husbandmans.

Punjab State Council for Science & A ; Technology ( PSCST ) :

The husbandmans of Dhar Block part are in populating poorness degree. The terminal merchandise of Aromatic works is indispensable oil which is obtained by distillment procedure. To ease distillment procedure, PSCST has set up distillment unit with equal capacity in Dhar Block part so that the quality and measure of aromatic oil could be maintained and the agriculturists would be able to acquire a higher monetary value for their green goods.

KET ‘s Scientific Research Centre ( KET ‘s SRC ) : KET ‘s SRC has standardized the protocols for cultivation and post-harvest processing of assorted Aromatic harvests and have demonstrated the same in assorted parts of the state ; KET ‘s SRC will be turn outing germplasm of Aromatic workss to the husbandmans for cultivation. KET ‘s SRC has good developed Plant tissue civilization research lab where Aromatic workss are produced by works tissue civilization technique peculiarly Patchouli and Geranium tissue civilization workss are produced in majority. These tissue civilization workss will be supplied to the husbandmans and Palmarosa, citronella and lemon grass will be provided either in the signifier of seeds or saplings. The scientists and proficient expert will give field presentation and proficient knowhow to the husbandmans of selected part. The Centre besides offers purchase back strategy to the husbandmans for oil extracted from the workss after Quality Assurance as per the predominating market rate of the oil in the universe market.

Regional Research Centre, Gurdaspur ( RRS, Gurdaspur ) :

Punjab Agriculture University will be making agro climatic survey of Dhar Block at its Regional Research Centre, Gurdaspur for the cultivation of Aromatic workss. RRS depending upon the agro climatic status of selected field will urge husbandmans to turn several Aromatic workss by set uping meeting with husbandmans and besides will supply proficient knowhow to the husbandmans related to the cultivation of Aromatic workss.

Unati Cooperative Marketing-cum-Processing Society:

Towards better selling of indispensable oil extracted from Aromatic workss, PSCST has recommended direct gross revenues or gross revenues through Unati Cooperative Marketing-cum-Processing Society so that husbandmans will acquire maximal border on Aromatic plants/ indispensable oil.

Demand of Aromatic workss is more globally and India is importing indispensable oil to carry through the demand. There is a immense demand of Aromatic workss and India has a huge diverseness for the cultivation of Aromatic workss.

The Department of Biotechnology has sanctioned this undertaking with the position to heighten the support of husbandmans of Dhar Block part. The organisations involved in this undertaking are Punjab State Council for Science and Technology ( PSCST ) , KET ‘s Scientific Research Centre, Regional Research Centre, Gurdaspur ( RRS, Gurdaspur ) and Unati Cooperative Marketing-cum-Processing Society for the cultivation and processing of selected Aromatic workss.


It is concluded that the livelihood security of husbandmans of Dhar Block part of Gurdaspur territory of Punjab can be improved making the cultivation of Aromatic workss. In this context, the participatory attack could assist the husbandmans for complete cultivation of Aromatic workss and processing of biomass for oil extraction and its selling. It is expected that husbandmans will acquire alternate option for gaining. As these workss are non perishable husbandmans may non endure if the market rate is down. The oil can be stored for long period. It is hoped that the scientific and proficient information given to the husbandmans can assist them in proper cultivation and station crop processing and better and the indispensable oil of good quality can be extracted. The undertaking will supply new avenues of support to the husbandmans of Dhar Block part through cultivation of selected aromatic workss. It will better the socio-economic position of hapless SC/ST community through advancing aromatic works cultivation.

Recognition: The writers are grateful to Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for the fiscal helper of this undertaking.