‘Jacobite ‘ was the name given to an person or group who supported the royal house of ‘Stuart ‘ after King James Stuart II was overthrown in 1688-89. During 1689-1746, there were a series of unsuccessful Jacobite rebellions and this essay will research the chief grounds as to why they failed to derive support amongst the Scots people, chiefly due to differences in faith and political relations.
King James Stuart II was a Catholic and it was believed that his program was to re-establish Catholicism and have an wholly Catholic province, much to the horror of the people as they were preponderantly Protestant. However as he had no male heirs his sequence to the throne was his girl ‘Mary ‘ who was a Protestant. James II so went on to hold a boy, ‘James Francis Edward Stuart ‘ , who would be brought up as a Catholic diminishing England ‘s hope of holding a Protestant province. This led to the ‘Glorious Revolution ‘ in 1688-89 where James II was overthrown and replaced by his girl and her Dutch hubby ‘William of Orange ‘ , ensuing in King James II taking his boy and flying to France, which was a Catholic state ( Helicon 2006 ) .
The ‘Battle of Killicrankie ‘ in 1689 marked the first of the Jacobite rebellions. This was led by ‘John Graham ‘ of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee ( aka ‘Bonnie Dundee ‘ ) when the Scottish Parliament accepted ‘Mary ‘ and ‘William of Orange ‘ as swayers. Claverhouse was a Catholic protagonist of James II and he gained an ground forces, chiefly recruited from the Scots Highlands who were preponderantly Catholics, to take against Major General ‘Hugh Mackay ‘ . He successfully defeated Mackay nevertheless he lost his ain life. Claverhouse ‘s ground forces so lost impulse without proper way and were defeated at the ‘Battle of Dunkeld ‘ . In 1690, James II arrived in Ireland with 6000 Gallic Soldiers and took control of the staying Jacobite ground forces. ‘William of Orange ‘ now ‘King William III ‘ led an ground forces against him at the ‘Battle of Boyne ‘ and was successful motivating James to one time once more flee to France ( Hickman day of the month terra incognita ) .
James II died in 1701 and his boy, James III aka the ‘Old Pretender ‘ took up his male parent ‘s claim to the throne. After the ‘The Darrien Disaster ‘ in 1698-1700 ( Scotland ‘s doomed effort to colonize Isthmus of Panama in Central America in order to put up a trading station, which was declared illegal by King William III, taking to many deceases and about destroying Scotland ‘s economic system ) , the Scots people resented King William III. When the ‘English Act of Settlement ( 1701 ) ‘ and the ‘Act of Union ( 1707 ) ‘ were passed ( the creative activity of Great Britain ) , this lead to farther bitterness within Scotland and the Gallic used this to their advantage. They were at war with Britain and encouraged James III to sail to Scotland to claim the throne, believing that the Scots Protestants would be disheartened by what was go oning and fall in the Jacobites. When James III reached the River Forth with a Gallic fleet, he was met by Royal Naval ships and despite his protesting, the fleet returned to France ( Montgomery 2012 ) .
In 1715, George I took over the throne and instantly removed a Politician, ‘John Erskine ‘ , Earl of Mar from his place due to miss of trueness. Erskine aka ‘Bobbin John ‘ tended to rock from one side to the other depending on who he thought would win. He retaliated by get downing a rebellion in the Jacobite name nevertheless he did non inform the Jacobites in France. He rapidly gained support in the Scots Highlands every bit good as North East Scotland and shortly he controlled most of North Scotland ( Montgomery 2012 ) . Erskine had gained an ground forces that to a great extent outnumbered the Government ground forces nevertheless despite this, he all of a sudden withdrew at the ‘Battle of Sheriffmuir ‘ and fled to France. This rebellion was important as it besides created a rebellion in Lancashire, England which was preponderantly Catholic ( Yeoman 2011 ) .
The concluding rebellion took topographic point in 1745 when ‘Charles Stuart ‘ ( aka ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie ‘ ) arrived in Scotland with a little ground forces. The King of France promised to occupy England with a larger ground forces nevertheless this promise was non fulfilled. Charles found it hard to derive support at first but he shortly found Alliess amongst the Catholic Highlanders. He encountered farther jobs as he moved south and received less support as the people in the Lowlandss of Scotland were Protestants ( Montgomery 2012 ) . Charles successfully won the ‘Battle of Prestonpans ‘ and took Scotland where he was advised by his General to halt but he wanted to occupy England. He expected the English Catholics to fall in him along the manner nevertheless they did non and when they were approaching London, the Jacobite leaders decided to withdraw back to Scotland, due to rumor of several ground forcess on the Government side ( jamgilp 2009 ) . They were pursued by the Government ground forces to Scotland and the two sides met at the ‘Battle of Culloden ‘ . They lost the conflict and Charles fled to France go forthing his protagonists behind to be punished by executing or holding their land removed from them ( Montgomery 2012 ) .
Each of the Jacobite rebellions tells us that they successfully gained the support of the Scots Highlanders as they were chiefly Catholics who supported the Stuart household claim to the throne. However the Lowlanders were chiefly Protestants and they did non desire a Catholic King for fright of re-establishing Catholicism. Several of the rebellions nevertheless did derive support from some Protestants who were disgruntled by the ‘Act of Union ( 1707 ) ‘ but this support was non adequate and all rebellions were unsuccessful.