coevals. It besides examines the causes and effects of clime alteration on Nigeria. It was found that electricity demand will increase significantly due clime alteration and accordingly a negative consequence on the biomass.Mitigating policies has been suggested like optimising energy mix, by developing low C and renewable energy, explicating relevant jurisprudence and ordinances and advancing engineering promotion and economic restructure.
Climate alteration is a major planetary issue of common concern to the International Community. It is an issue affecting both environment and development, but it is finally an issue of development. Climate alteration will hold wide-ranging impacts on society and the substructure that supports civilisation. Global heating could impact non merely on agribusiness and human wellness but besides forms of human colony, energy usage, transit, industry, environmental quality and other facets of substructure that affect our quality of life ( IPCC, 1990 ) .
Numerous illustrations from history illustrate how the success of civilisation and human public assistance is closely linked to climate ( Gore, 1993 ) . Fossil-fuel usage will impact future clime. Fossil-fuels, presently the pillar of economically developed states, supply energy either straight as fuel or indirectly as generated electricity, for fabrication, agribusiness, transit, and infinite warming. Future green house gas ( GHG ) emanations and attendant clime alteration will depend mostly on future rates of fossil-fuel ingestion.
Many complex and interacting factors determine the ingestion rate of fossil fuels. Demand is a consequence of population growing rate, handiness of fossil fuel, energy efficiency, preservation steps and usage of non-fossil energy beginnings, general industrial productiveness, energy policy and future clime ( Hardy, 2003 ) . All these factors will impact fossil-fuel use rates and future clime.
This paper examines how climate alteration influences power and energy coevals in general, with accent on the Nigeria Case. specifically, it will analyze the construct, causes and effects of clime alteration ; universe energy scene, Nigeria energy scene, effects of energy usage on clime, cardinal countries for GHG, extenuation, alternate energy beginnings and Nigeria ‘s attempts in extenuating clime alteration.
1.2 Climate Change: An Overview
Climate alteration refers to any alteration in clime over clip, whether due to natural variableness or as a consequence of human activity. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFECC ) defines climate alteration as a alteration of clime which is attributable straight or indirectly to human activity that alters the composing of the planetary ambiance and which is in add-on to natural clime variableness observed over a comparable clip periods ( IPCC, 2001 ) .
The Earth ‘s clime is driven by a uninterrupted flow of energy from the Sun. Heat energy from the Sun passes through the Earth ‘s ambiance and warms the Earth ‘s surface. As the temperature increases, the Earth ‘s sends heat energy ( infrared radiation ) back into the ambiance. Some of this heat is absorbed by gases in the ambiance, such as C dioxide ( C02 ) ( the major subscriber to planetary heating ) , H2O vapour, methane, azotic oxide, ozone and aura Cs.
These gases, which are all of course happening, act as a cover, pin downing in the heat and forestalling it from being reflected excessively far from the Earth. They keep the Earth ‘s mean temperature at about 150C warm plenty to prolong life for worlds, workss and animate beings. Without these gases, the mean temperature would be about -180Caˆ¦ excessively cold for most life signifiers. This natural warming consequence is besides sometimes called the nursery consequence.
These rapid additions in the status of these gases in the ambiance due chiefly to human activity, peculiarly the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation, have been impacting the surface clime of the Earth. This change is achieved through changing the radiation balance of the Earth, warming the surface and impacting atmospheric circulation. It is this planetary heating of clime, the enhanced nursery consequence that has become the topic of concern at planetary, national and local degree ( Carter et al, 1994 ) .
1.3 Climate Change: Causes and Features
The major causes of clime alteration are both anthropogenetic and natural. The IPCC, 4th study released in 2007 stated that, multiple lines of grounds confirms that the post-industrial rise in nursery gases does non stem from natural mechanisms. In other words, this is anthropogenetic clime alteration, and the important addition in the ambiance of these powerful nursery gases are as a consequence of human activity ( IPCC, 2007 ) . The most potent of the nursery gases are carbon dioxide ( C02 ) , methane ( CH4 ) , and azotic oxide ( N20 ) .
The natural causes are additions in the volume of gases, wet and particulates in the lower ambiance by volcanic eruptions, ocean turbulency, abandon air currents etc. These forces combine with anthropogenetic forces to make nursery conditions. A serious natural factor is the change in the strength of solar radiation itself in the signifier of sunspots – stand foring the most good known look of solar activity ( Lozan, Hupfer and Global, 2000 ) . Lozan et Al ( 2000 ) identified 27 nursery ( CFC ) gases in the ambiance. A chief constituent of these gases is C02, which contributes about 49 % of the 3.30C addition in warming due to these gases. This C02 laterality is due to industrialization in America and Europe and Biomass combustion and gas flaring in the Torrid Zones ( FAO, 1997 ) .
So far, Global Climate Models ( GCMs ) have projected three generalised impact of clime alteration originating from planetary heating which are of immediate relevancy to Africa in general and Nigeria in peculiar ( IPCC, 1999 ) . These are summarized as follows:
Desertss are likely to go utmost – going hotter but non significantly wetter. The Sahara desert which borders West Africa to the North has been noted to be doing about relentless “ incursion ” into the Sahel ensuing in dry conditions during the summer monsoon.
Global hydrology rhythm will be intensified with alterations in precipitation, its entire sum, frequence and strength. And this will surely impact hydropower coevals.
Agricultural production ( including forestry ) will increase in some countries and lessening in others taking into history the good effects of C02 concentration.
2.1 World Energy Consumption and Electricity Generation
renewable and waste
10.6 % Coal has led the recent rush in planetary energy demand and is on a strong growing way. Statisticss from the universe coal institute show that coal provides 25 % of planetary primary energy demands and generates 40 % of the universe ‘s electricity, and production of coal has grown 78 % over the last 25 old ages. ( B )
( A )
A=World Energy Consumption. B=World Electricity Generation.
Fig. 1: World Energy Consumption and Electricity Generation
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.global-greenhouse-warming.com.
It is a truism that soon we are at a peak oil crisis, and there is no uncertainty that oil stocks and militias are dwindling. For each twelvemonth in future there will be less oil available than there had been in the yesteryear. To some extent this prognosis will coerce us to reconsider cleaner options. If we are traveling to battle nursery gases and planetary heating, so we must see alternate energy as a feasible pick to traditional dodo fuel beginnings.
2.2 Nigeria ‘s Energy Scene
The National energy is at present about wholly dependent on fossil fuels and firewood ( conventional energy beginnings ) which are consuming fast. Harmonizing to Chendo ( 2001 ) recent estimations indicated that the modesty for petroleum oil stood at about 23 billion barrels in 1998, natural gas 4293 billion M3s at the beginning of 1999, made up of 53 % associated gas and 47 % non associated gas. Coal and lignite stood at 2.7 billion tones, Tar sands at 31 billion barrels of oil equivalent and big graduated table hydropower at 10,000 millivolt.
Tables 1 and 2 show assorted conventional and non-conventional energy beginnings and their estimated militias in Nigeria.
Table 1: Nigeria ‘s Conventional Energy Resources
Resources in Energy Units ( billion tones )
% Entire Conventional Energy
23 billion barrels
4293 billion M3s
Coal and brown coal
2.7 billion tones
31 billion barrels of oil equivalent
1.954 ( 100 year )
Conventional/Commercial Energy Resources
Beginning: Chendo ( 2001 ) .
Table 2: Nigeria ‘s Non Conventional Energy Resources
Militias ( billion tones )
43.3 million tones
1.6645 ( over 100 old ages )
Animal wastes and harvest residue
3.024 ( over 100 old ages )
Small graduated table hydropower
0.143 ( over 100 old ages )
1.0kw per M3
Land country ( extremum )
2.0 – 4.0m/s
Beginning: Chendo ( 2001 )
2.3 Energy Supply Mix in Nigeria
The 1995 distribution of energy ingestion ( figure 2 ) typifies the current energy supply mix in the state. It shows that of the entire energy ingestion, the portion of natural gas was 5.22 % , hydroelectricity 3.05 % , fuel wood had the king of beasts portion of 50.45 % and crude oil merchandises had 41.28 % portion. This farther confirms the fact that soon, renewable-energy usage in the state is split basically between hydroelectricity and traditional fuel wood ( Akinbami, 2001 ) .
Fig. 2: Typical Energy Supply Mix in Nigeria
Beginning: Akinbami, ( 2001 ) .
2.4 Economic Sectors and Energy Patterns
From the energy point of position, the Nigeria economic system can be disaggregated into industry, conveyance, commercial, family and agricultural sectors. However, the family sector soon dominated energy ingestion in Nigeria. This makes it the most of import energy sector of the Nigeria economic system ( Oladosu and Adegbulugbe, 1994 ) . Figure 3 shows sectoral distribution of National Final Energy Consumption.
Agriculture 1 %
Figure 3: Sectoral Distribution of National Final Energy Consumption ( PJ ) in 1989.
Beginning: Oladosu and Adegbulugbe ( 1994 ) .
The family sector has systematically accounted for over half of Nigeria ‘s entire domestic energy ingestion. In 1989 its portion was approximately 65 % . This alone is adequate to foreground the importance of the sector in the Nigeria energy system. However, an analysis of the concluding energy composing of this ingestion is even more disclosure.
Harmonizing to Oladosu and Adegbulugbe ( 1994 ) , the energy devouring activities in the sector are cooking, illuming and operation of electrical contraptions ( non-substitutable electricity ) . In 1989, the portions of these activities in concluding energy ingestion were 91 % , 6 % and 3 % severally. Entire concluding energy ingestion was 487PJ. The major energy bearers are fuel wood, kerosine, Liquefied Petroleum Gas ( LPG ) and electricity. Small sums of wood coal and coal are besides used. Fuel wood is chiefly consumed in this sector and accounted for over half of entire natural energy ingestion in 1989. A little sum is consumed in rural industries and the commercial sector. This means that fuel wood constitutes about 80 % of entire residential concluding energy ingestion.
1 % LPG
13 % Kerosene
Wood and others
82 % %
Fig. 4: Distribution of Household Final Energy Consumption.
Beginning: Oladosu and Adegulugbe ( 1994 ) .
3.1 The Effectss of Energy Use on Climate
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC, 2002 ) calls for stabilisation of nursery gas concentrations in the ambiance at a degree that would forestall unsafe anthropogenetic intervention with the clime system. The existent degree at which atmospheric C02 stabilisation is achieved will depend on the merchandise of several factors, known together as the KAYA IDENTITY ( Hoffert et Al, 1998 ) :
Mc = N ( GDP/N ) ( E/GDP ) ( C/E )
Where Mc = C02 emitted from fossil fuel burning
N = Population
GDP = Gross domestic merchandise
E/GDP = Energy strength in N twelvemonth $ -1
C/E = Carbon strength = the leaden norm of the carbon-to-
energy emanation factors of all energy beginnings in kilogram CN-1 twelvemonth -1.
The degree of atmospheric C02 stabilisation that can be achieved in this century will depend on all these factors ( Hoffert et Al, 1998 ) . In the underdeveloped universe, because of the projected rapid growing rate in energy usage, accomplishable additions in energy efficiency will hold small impact in cut downing entire GHG emanations ( Pearson and Fouquet, 1996 ) .
Improvement in energy efficiency entirely will non be sufficient to stabilise C02 at sensible mark values. Meeting C02 stabilisation ends will necessitate a coincident lessening in C fuels as a proportion of entire energy. New C free beginnings of energy will be required to diminish C strength ( Hoffert et Al, 1998 ) .
3.2 The Effectss of Climate Change on Energy Supply and Demand
The impacts of clime alteration on supply and demand will change greatly by part. For illustration, in the United Kingdom and Russia a 2 to 2.20C heating by 2050 will diminish winter space-heating demands, therefore diminishing fossil-fuel demand by 5 to 10 % and electricity demand by 1 to 3 % ( Moreno and Skea, 1996 ) . In the North eastern United States, summer clip decreases in watercourse flow will cut down hydropower coevals during that season ( Linder, 1990 ) .
In Nigeria, a 2 to 2.20C heating by 2050 will increase dry season air-conditioning demand by 3 to 6 % and electricity demand by 4 % . At the same clip, dry season lessenings in watercourse flow will cut down hydropower coevals during that season.
Model surveies, presuming a 3 to 50C addition in temperature by 2055, suggest that electricity demand and fuel costs will increase significantly because of clime alteration ( Linder, 1990 ) . Annual electricity energy demands will increase somewhat by 4 to 6 % by the twelvemonth 2055. As a consequence of clime alteration, peak national demand will increase 16 to 23 % above base instance values, that is, above the increased demand due mostly to population growing without clime alteration.
The costs of increasing electrical capacity to run into the increased demand due to climate alteration will be big. By 2055, the one-year costs for capital, fuel, and climate-induced alterations in public-service corporation operations will be 7 to 15 % greater than costs without climate alteration.
An addition in electrical demand ( much of it generated by fossil-fuel burning ) would do policies that limit GHG emanations more hard to accomplish. And with increased demand, the demand to import power could impact the balance of payments of Nigeria ‘s foreign trade.
Following its consequence on overflow and watercourse flows, clime alteration will besides impact hydroelectricity power coevals. Hydropower supplies 2.3 % of the universe ‘s entire energy and 3 % of Nigeria ‘s electricity. The African drouth of 1991 to 1992 led to a important lessening in hydropower.
Climate alteration will besides impact biomass ( trees or other flora ) energy in Nigeria, which presently provides 11 % of planetary energy ( IEA, 1998 ) . In sub-Saharan Africa in 1990, biomass fuel ( largely wood ) provided 53 % of the entire energy ( in Nigeria it was 80 % ) . If climate alteration, as expected, decreases rainfall in Northern Nigeria, woods will endure from drouth and fuel wood become scarce. The hapless will be most vulnerable to decreases in the fuel wood supply.
3.3 Nigeria ‘s Attempts in Mitigating Climate Change
As a underdeveloped state of duty, Nigeria adopted series of policies and steps taking into history its specific national fortunes, doing positive part to the extenuation of clime alteration. They include:
Restructuring the economic system, advancing engineering promotion and bettering energy efficiency. Since 1999, the authorities of Nigeria has paid more attending to the alteration of the economic growing form and the restructuring of economic system, and integrated the decrease of energy and other resources ingestion, the publicity of clean production, and the bar and control of industrial pollution into its national industrial policies.
Optimizing Energy mix by developing low-carbon and renewable energy
Under national policy counsel and with fiscal support, the portion of high class and clean energy was improved by beef uping the development and use of hydropower, oil, gas and back uping the development and use of new and renewable energy including biomass, solar, geothermic and wind power.
c. Launching national broad tree-planting and afforestation run
Since 1990, enormous accomplishment has been made in tree-planting and afforestation along with the execution of cardinal forest ecological undertakings in Nigeria.
d. Strengthening Torahs and ordinances and policies and steps relevant to turn toing clime alteration
To turn to newly-emerging issues in recent old ages, the National Assemblies have passed a member of Torahs to further reenforce the policies and steps relevant to turn toing clime alteration.
e. Attaching great importance to climate alteration research and capacity edifice
The authorities of Nigeria values its capableness and capacity to back up scientific surveies and researches on clime alteration, and invariably heighten them. It has implemented a figure of cardinal research undertakings with some Nigeria Universities such as clime alteration programme with FUT, Minna.
3.4 Alternative Energy Sources ( Renewables )
Renewable energy is considered to be one of the polar “ Wedges ” that can battle planetary heating and stabilise the clime, through the decrease of C dioxide emanations. Alternative energy or renewable energy ( RE ) beginnings are non destroyed when we use the energy harnessed. Renewable energies are options to traditional beginnings. They are different to fossil fuels or atomic power, which must be consumed ( coal or gas burnt in power Stationss, oil in conveyance, U in atomic power ) to let go of energy.
To use renewable beginnings requires developing engineerings that harvest this energy. For case, specific engineerings like those below, are needed to expeditiously change over natural procedures into energy to power our societies. They include: sunshine ( solar power ) , wind, moving ridges, tides ( tidal power ) , fluxing H2O ( hydropower ) , geothermic heat, biological procedures ( biomass ) including: ethyl alcohol, palm oil, biof`uels, and biodiesel from algae. Nigeria is presently under using its renewable ( alternate ) energy beginnings.
3.5 Key Areas for GHG Mitigation
I ) . Formulate and implement relevant Torahs and ordinances.
Vigorously beef up energy statute law to set up and better energy legal system, promote the execution of Nigeria ‘s national energy development scheme, set up the legal position of medium and long term energy plan, promote the optimisation of energy mix, mitigate GHG emanations from energy production and transmutation. Major policies and steps are as the followers:
Expedite the fundamental law and amendment of Torahs and ordinances that are favourable to GHG extenuation.
Strengthen research and explicate energy scheme plan.
Implement the Renewable Energy Law of Nigeria
two ) . Strengthen Institutional Innovation and Mechanism Construction
– Accelerate Nigeria ‘s institutional reform in energy sector.
– Further promote mechanism building for renewable energy development. Based on the rule of incorporating authorities counsel, policy support and market force, stable mechanism for investing will be established through authorities investing, authorities grant and other steps.
three ) . Intensify Relevant Policies and Measures in Energy Industry
– Properly develop hydropower on the stipulation of protecting the ecosystem.
– Actively promote the development of atomic power.
– Expedite engineering promotion in thermic power coevals.
– Vigorously develop coal-bed methane ( CBM ) and coal-mine methane ( CMM ) industry.
– Promote the development of bio-energy.
– Actively back up the development and use of air current, solar, geothermic and tidal energy.
four ) . Strengthen the Development and Dissemination of Advanced and Suitable Technologies.
– Technologies for the clean and efficient development and use of coal – as such, stress the research and development of highly-efficient coal excavation engineerings and back uping equipments, efficient power coevals engineerings and equipment such as heavy-duty gas turbines, integrated gasification combined rhythm ( IGCC ) , hard-hitting, high-temperature extremist supercritical unit, and large-scale supercritical circulation fluid bed boilers ; smartly develop coal liquefaction, gasification and coal-chemistry and other engineerings for coal transition, coal gasification based multi-generation systems engineering, and C dioxide gaining control, use and storage engineerings.
– Exploration, development and use engineerings of oil and gas resources.
– Nuclear power coevals engineering – Research and maestro fast reactor design and its nucleus engineering, including atomic fuel and structural stuff related engineering.
– Renewable energy engineering. Prioritize the development of low-cost and scale development and use engineerings, including the development of big scale wind-power coevals equipments, high public presentation and low-priced photovoltaic battery engineering, solar thermic power coevals, integrated solar energy edifice engineering, and biomass and geothermic energy development and use engineerings.
– Power transmittal and distribution and grid safety engineerings. Prioritize the research and development of large-capacity.