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Impact Of Sickness Absenteeism

Employees of different constitutions are entitled to a given figure of foliages like ill and local foliages among others harmonizing to the jurisprudence. Therefore, all administrations can anticipate a certain grade of absence and unwellness. However, it can be observed that more and more people in administrations are holding frequent absences and many instances of unwellness have been recorded.

In 2007, Confederation of British Industry/AXA Absence Survey has set the cost of absence to employers in the UK at more than ?13 billion a twelvemonth, while cost per employee is ?659 yearly. Harmonizing to Williams ( 2003 ) , in Canada besides one million millions of dollars are lost each twelvemonth due to absenteeism.

Sickness absenteeism and illness is hence a turning major planetary job impacting 1000s administrations. High degree of absenteeism is a serious job for both big and little administrations, since they are dearly-won to both single constitutions and economic system as a whole and adversely poignant efficiency, productiveness, and profitableness.

Sickness absenteeism and illness can be an indicant of cardinal organizational jobs. Therefore, it is of import to set up the cause and happen out solutions through the scrutiny of administration ‘s policies and activities.

There are several grounds why employees might be absent or autumn ill. These grounds might be hapless on the job conditions and relationship with direction, no motive, and no range of self-development, a civilization within the administration and no calling chances, excessively much emphasis at work among others. Therefore, it is recognised that it is going necessary to happen societal and institutional redresss.

When employees are absent and ailment, it leads to hapless productiveness. And hence, costs of the administration rises as the goods and services are of hapless quality. In the United States harmonizing to the Commonwealth Fund, approximately $ 260 billion are loss in end product due to health-related jobs. Hence, it is important for an administration to understand the causes of sickness absenteeism and illness and their impact on the administration.

Therefore, it is both the legal and morale responsibilities of the employer to forestall people in the administration from being made ailment with their several occupations. This is because, a healthy worker in both public and private administrations is of import, as the corporate aim of administrations mostly depends on wellness and every bit good non-health issues of its population. That is, happy employees are efficient and productive employees.

Problem Statement

The job of high degree of sickness absenteeism and illness at work is an bing job at Air Mauritius, impacting productiveness. These are most frequent among staffs working on displacement hours. The sickness absenteeism rate at Air Mauritius is illustrated as follows:

Year

Illness Absences ( man-days )

2006

12457

2007

14654

2008

17323

2009

15418

Out of the illness absences recorded, an norm of 23.5 % is registered on week-end. In add-on, a research of the non-communicable showing exercising carried out at the Head Office and the SSR International Airport among 1100 employees illustrates that an norm of 50 % of the individuals are pre-diabetic or diabetic, have high hazards of enduring from cardiac apprehension and are either corpulent or fleshy.

Therefore, the above information gives a clear indicant that the prevalence of wellness jobs, absenteeism job which is rather marked among employees of Air Mauritius Ltd. That is why, absenteeism and wellness issues have to be closely monitored and supported else it would hold a serious consequence on the public presentation of employees. Hence, the survey will be based on happening the grounds of a high illness absence rate and happen ways to assist employees to stay in good wellness.

1.3 Research Aims

Identify the causes of sickness absenteeism and illness at Air Mauritius Ltd.

Does sickness absenteeism and sickness impact on productiveness at Air Mauritius Ltd.

Give Air Mauritius Ltd employees inducements to be more productive and regular at work.

Establish an absence direction policy at Air Mauritius.

1.4 Proposed Methodology

Data aggregation includes primary beginnings and secondary beginnings. The primary beginning includes an interview with the Human Resources section and the Health & A ; Safety section to happen out the rate of absenteeism and illness studies in the land operations, technology and cabin operations sections. Discourse with employees and collect informations through questionnaire which will be administered to a sample of employees.

Secondary beginnings consist of informations collected from the company ‘s web site, magazine articles, diaries records like Emerald, EBSCO among others and assorted books about human resources absenteeism and productiveness.

1.5 The layout of the thesis

The topic under survey will be presented as follows:

Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal

Under this chapter, a literature reappraisal has been done refering the nature of illness absenteeism, illness and productiveness, their costs, the factors taking to sickness absenteeism and illness and the possible solutions to cut down sickness absenteeism and illness and increase productiveness at work.

Chapter 3: Company Profile

This chapter set an overview of the company Air Mauritius Ltd. The concern in which it operates, its merchandises and its clients are described. Its work environment, direction and staff population and its development are every bit good presented.

Chapter 4: Research methodological analysis

This chapter explains the methodological analysis that has been used to acquire an penetration in the topic and discourse the restrictions of this undertaking.

Chapter 5: Survey findings and analysis

Here the findings that have been generated from the study are presented utilizing graphs, charts and they are analysed in relation to this undertaking.

Chapter 6: Recommendations and decision

After the study findings are analysed the defects in the undertaking are noted and recommendations are made.

Annex 1: Sample questionnaire given to employees.

2 Literature Review

2.1 Definitions

2.1.1 Absenteeism

In general absenteeism is defined as the failure to demo for work or any other accustomed responsibility. This normally disrupts work agendas adding work loads to those who are at work which might take to low morale among employees. Therefore, absenteeism obstructs the good operation of production and efficient running of an administration. Lokke A.K, Eskildsen. J and Jesen. T. W ( 2007 ) likewise reported that the traditional definition of absence is about non being physically present at the topographic point and clip the employee is expected to be.

Davey. M.M, Cummings. G, Newburn-cook. C. V, and Lo. E. A ( 2009 ) have defined absenteeism as the failure to look to work when planned, and harmonizing to them absence is measured by frequence or sum of work yearss missed. The Entrepreneur ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia ) described absenteeism as “ an employee ‘s deliberate or accustomed absence from work. Everybody misses a twenty-four hours of work now and so. But it ‘s a job when an employee girls excessively many yearss of work. Not demoing up for work can do serious jobs when other employees have to cover for the missing worker or, worse, the work merely does n’t acquire done. ”

Another definition by Nicholson ( 1977, p. 237 ) said that “ Absence, in the linguistic communication of economic sciences, is an unpredictable fluctuation in the house ‘s labour supply and in labor-intensive and technologically crude scenes which can bring forth dearly-won attendant fluctuations in end product ” .

Furthermore, Harvey and Nicholson ( 1993 ) , p. 841 recognized that absenteeism was the major cause of lost productiveness in concern and industry. In a similar vena, Buschak. M, Craven. C and Ledman. R ( 1996 ) stated that absenteeism is a trouble that every administration or concern faces making costs and productiveness jobs. Therefore, taking to a heavier work burden on the bulk of employees who have shown up for work. This type of state of affairs tends to make dissatisfaction, defeat, emphasis and weariness among employees

2.1.2 Types of Absenteeism

There are two chief types of absence voluntary and nonvoluntary. Hackett and Guion, ( 1985 ) have defined voluntary absences as what is in the control of the employee. These can take signifier of short-run, insouciant and illicit absences which is based on the motive of the employee. On the other manus, nonvoluntary absences are what are beyond the control of the employee ; they are normally due to sickness or household duties.

2.1.2 Illness

Reijenga. F. A. ( 2006 ) defined illness as all types of wellness jobs or disablements. As mentioned before there are two types of illness, short term illness for illustration grippe and long term illness such as diabetes which is classified as a chronic disease.

Tabaluyan, T. , Kuswadji, S ( 1996 ) reported that illness absence is defined as non being able to work due illness or hurt, that is, the incapableness to work. In the same manner, Employers ‘ Administration, ( 2005 ) elaborated that “ sickness absence should include industrial hurt, portion yearss absence, and other self-certificated absence which is non explicitly ascribed to be an acceptable ground other than illness. ”

However, M. Borritz, R. Rugulies, K. B Christensen, E. Villadsen and T. S Kristensen ( 2005 ) indicated that “ sickness absence is a complex phenomenon that can be caused by single, work related, organizational, and social factors. Sickness absence has been discussed as a effect of sick wellness, A a header mechanism, behavior of societal equity, a reaction to organizational unfairness, or a effect of exposure to adverse work-environment factors. ” Furthermore, Whitaker S. besides agreed with the fact that sickness absence is influenced by many factors like societal causes other than wellness issues.

2.1.3 Productiveness

In an economic expert point of position productiveness is a ratio of some step of end product to some index of input usage, harmonizing to Eatwell and Newman ( 1991 ) . Therefore, productiveness is nil more than the arithmetic ratio of sum produced to amount of any resources used in the class of production. An on-line definition by hypertext transfer protocol: //business.yourdictionary.com, stated that productiveness is “ the efficiency with which end product is produced by a given set of inputs. Productiveness is by and large measured by the ratio of end product to input. An addition in the ratio indicates an addition in productiveness. Conversely, a lessening in the output/input ratio indicates a diminution in productiveness. ” However, definitions of productiveness in the above context are meant to the fabrication sector.

2.1.3.1 Productivity in the Service Sector

Rutkauskan. J and Paulaviciene. E ( 2005 ) have studied the construct of productiveness in the service sector and they aroused that productiveness, efficiency and effectivity are footings that should be used together. This is because to be productive one should be both efficient and effectual. The analysis of productiveness is a hard undertaking in the service sector. As the productiveness construct in the service sector involves both the administration and the client. Harmonizing to Tolentini ( 2004 ) productiveness depends on the value of the merchandises and services and the efficiency upon which they are produced and distributed to the clients. Similarly in the research work of Maroto-Sanchez. A ( 2010 ) productiveness is about being both efficient and effectual. He described effectiveness as to how an administration meets the active demands and outlooks of its clients. Hence it can be seen that, to be productive in the service sector employees have to be both effectual and efficient. Therefore, employers have to guarantee that their employees are effectual and efficient plenty to supply a good service to their clients.

2.2 Causes of sickness absenteeism and illness

There are assorted factors that affect sickness absence and illness. Factors impacting sickness absence in the air power sector can be classified as wellness related issues such as hurt at work such as musculoskeletal strivings emphasis and weariness and so on, and non-health related issues like organizational committedness, occupation satisfaction among others since harmonizing to Whitaker. S. research, sickness absenteeism is influenced by a assortment of factors non-related to wellness. Testimonies that have been gathered among employees at Air Mauritius have proved that sickness absenteeism is largely related to the non health-related issues. However, it is merely after the analysis of the questionnaires that we will be able to understand the existent causes of absenteeism and its impact on productiveness.

2.3 Non Health-related issues

2.3.1 Organizational Committedness

“ Organizational Committedness is typically measured by points tapping respondents ‘ willingness to work hard to better their companies, the tantrum between the house ‘s and the worker ‘s values, reluctance to go forth, and trueness toward or plume taken in working for their employers ” ( Maume, 2006, p. 164 ) . Similarly, Boolaky. M and Gokhool. D, p. 73 defines organizational committedness as the grade to which a individual is committed to the administration he or she is working for. The individual is proud to be associated to the administration and is committed to work towards the aims and ends of the administration.

Many surveies have reported that there is a relationship between organizational committedness and absenteeism. Gellatly, 1995 and Somer, 1995 surveies have concluded that organizational committedness is negatively related to absenteeism. That is, when an employee is non committed to its administration, this will be given to impact negatively on absenteeism. A research carried out by Meyer and Allen ( 1991 ) reported that committedness comprises three constituents viz. affectional, continuation and normative. Where affectional committedness refers to the person ‘s emotional fond regard to the administration her/she is working, that is the single participates in the administration ‘s activities because he/she wants to. Continuance committedness is when person realises that excessively much energy or clip have been devoted to go forth the administration or that they would non be able to happen another occupation. And normative committedness is when an single feels that he/she has an duty to take part in the activities of the administration and that it is the right thing to make. Meyer ( 1997 ) found that affectional committedness was strongly linked to absence behavior. However, normative committedness harmonizing to Meyer ( 1993 ) was negatively related to absenteeism on the other manus Somers ( 1995 ) has found no relationship between the two. And at last, Mayer and Schoorman ( 1992 ) concluded that continuation committedness did non hold a strong relation with absenteeism.

2.3.2 Job Involvement

Job engagement normally includes placing with the occupation, A

actively take parting in the occupation, and comprehending occupation public presentation to be importantA

to self-image ( Blau. G. J, 1985 ; Rabinowitz & A ; Hall, 1977 ) . Robbins ( 1998 ) defines occupation engagement as “ the grade to which a individual identifies with his or her occupation, actively participates in it, considers his or her public presentation of import to self-work. ” That is, occupation engagement refers to the extent to which one is committed and participates in his or her occupation.

The direct relationship of occupation engagement to absenteeism is really equivocal. Blau. G. J ( 1986 ) reappraisal of the surveies carried out at that clip, found that the surveies had different decisions ; this is because there are differences in the measuring and samples taken. Taunton et Al. and Cohen ( 2000 ) showed that there is a negative relationship between occupation engagement and absenteeism. However, occupation engagement and productiveness have a positive relationship. That is, as occupation engagement additions, productiveness additions and frailty versa. Harmonizing to W. H. Weiss ( 2006 ) employees who are involved in their occupations, that is, they have the know-how of why they need to transport out certain undertakings and how does these lend to the administration ‘s ends are the most productive workers. Therefore, it can be noted that occupation engagement is necessary to increase productiveness of employees.

2.3.3 Job Satisfaction

“ Job satisfaction refers to an emotional province of head that reflects an affectional reaction to the occupation and the work state of affairs, whereas the focal point of organisational committedness is on a more planetary reaction ( emotional or non-emotional ) to the full organisation ( Dipboye et al. , 1994 ; Farkas and Tetrick, 1989 ; Lance, 1991 ; Russell and Price, 1988 ) . ” ( Falkenburg. K and Schyns. B, 2007, p. 710 )

Job satisfaction is defined as “ the extent to which people like ( satisfaction ) or disfavor ( dissatisfaction ) their occupations ” ( Spector, 1997, p. 2 ) . This description implies that occupation satisfaction is a wide or planetary emotional reaction that persons hold about their occupation. Research workers and practicians have evaluated different “ aspects ” or “ dimensions ” of satisfaction. Analyzing these aspects is normally utile for measuring employee satisfaction with critical occupation factors. Traditional occupation satisfaction aspects consist of: colleagues, wage, occupation conditions, supervising, nature of the work and benefitsA ( Williams ) . Surveies have found that occupation satisfaction can besides be an independent variable impacting both productiveness and absenteeism. ( Boolaky. M and Gokhool. D, p. 75 ) .

There have had many theories on the relationship between occupation satisfaction and absenteeism. Most of these surveies concluded that as occupation dissatisfaction additions, self-reported absenteeism additions ( Taunton et al. 1885, Drago and Wooden 1992 ) . In 1982, a survey made by the Business Roundtable stated that occupation dissatisfaction affects absenteeism to a great extent. Employers should understand that the company ‘s ends and quality supervising are necessary for occupation satisfaction. It has besides been noted that as size of occupation increased, occupation satisfaction decreased.

Furthermore Hinze et Al. ( 1985 ) , study that identified the relationship between absenteeism and occupation satisfaction describe that absenteeism was lower among those who had strong coherence that is, squad spirit, and when direction criticised workers for being absent it was observed that absenteeism was lower, employees who regarded their work as mentally animating had fewer absences.

Furthermore Hausknecht, Hiller and Vance. ( 2008 ) , defined occupation satisfaction as the sense of enjoyment that persons derive from their experiences on the occupation and within the squad they work with. Therefore, harmonizing to this study high attending is expected in working environment where there is high satisfaction. This is because, the members of the squad have this feeling of belonging and support among themselves.

Furthermore, it can be observed that in a working environment where there is high satisfaction it increases the degree of productiveness. P. Valdes-Flores and J. A. Campos-Rodriguez ( 2008 ) depict “ occupation satisfaction as a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings for the employees to comprehend their work and that determine the possibility of a major temperament to accomplish higher public presentation, accordingly, occupation satisfaction refers to an person ‘s general attitude towards his or her occupation ” .

Link between engagement and committedness

Blau ( 1986 ) had developed the interaction of occupation engagement and organizational committedness and how this affected absence behavior. Furthermore, Blau and Boal ( 1987 ) refined the thought. The survey reported that there are four degree of part of high and low of occupation engagement and occupation committedness. When occupation engagement and occupation committedness are high, employees are non likely to be absent and if they happened to be absent this could be due to genuine illness. This type of employees is called “ institutional stars ” . Those who experience a low occupation committedness but high occupation engagements are absent because of calling chances or due to working environment, these individuals are called “ lone wolves ” . Persons with low occupation engagement and high organizational committedness called the “ corporate citizen ” esteem their colleagues and besides abide to the norms and ends of the administration they work for. Those could be absent from work in harmonizing to the administration ‘s lawful absence regulations. And in conclusion the “ apathetic employees ” identify themselves holding a low occupation engagement and organizational committedness, they have highest rate of absence.

Link between organizational committedness and occupation satisfaction

Many surveies have reported the association between organizational committedness and occupation satisfaction ( Meyer et al, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Levison and Moser, ( 1997 ) employees tend to be lethargy without occupation satisfaction, which reduces organizational committedness. Furthermore, a survey carried out by Tips and Rhodes ( 1978 ) stated that occupation satisfaction and organizational committedness drama a large function in finding employee attending. Griffeth et Al ( 2000 ) , indicated that organizational committedness was a better forecaster of absenteeism than occupation absenteeism. However, as occupation satisfaction is more about the emotional province of head, it is influenced by day-to-day events instead than organizational committedness which cover the administration as a whole and develops over clip ( Sagie, 1998 ) .

Link between occupation satisfaction and occupation engagement

Wegge. J, Schmidt. K, Parkes. C and Dick. R. V ( 2007 ) found that events at work impact on how employees feel at work therefore finding occupation satisfaction. Furthermore, occupation engagement measures the importance of the occupation to one ‘s self sentiment and therefore represents personality differences. Job satisfaction is situational variable and occupation involvement personality in our logical thinking. Therefore, they both interact. That is, if occupation satisfaction is low, occupation engagement will negatively impact absenteeism. However, when occupation satisfaction is high in any state of affairs it will get the better of the impact of occupation engagement on absence behavior. Job satisfaction hence has a moderate impact on occupation engagement and absence. To be more precise, when occupation satisfaction is low, occupation engagement is negatively related to absenteeism whereas, when occupation satisfaction is high, occupation engagement is non associated to absenteeism.

2.3.4 Organizational Culture

Morgan. G has described organisational civilization as: “ The set of the set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities, that represents the alone character of an organisation, and provides the context for action in it and by it. ” Another definition of organisational civilization by Schein. E “ a form of shared basic premises that the group learned as it solved its jobs that has worked good plenty to be considered valid and is passed on to new members as the right manner to comprehend, believe, and experience in relation to those jobs. “ A

Norms influence everyone in an administration ; they are unwritten and normally tell things like they are act uponing everyone ‘s perceptual experience in the administration and they contribute to the norms and back up them. Nowadays, we live in an absenteeism civilization. Harmonizing to Smit ( 2000 ) , absenteeism and civilization are negatively related. That is, employees encouraged and supported by the society to name a ill leave. However, employers do back up absenteeism as a cultural phenomenon. That is, when people take ill yearss when they are non ill, employers accept this as a cost to the administration. ( Allen. R. F, Higgins M. 1979 )

2.3.5 Motivation

Robbins and Coulter ( 1999 ) have defined motive as “ the willingness to exercise high degrees of attempt to make organisational ends as conditioned by that attempt ‘s ability to fulfill some single demand ” .

Luthans ( 1998 ) stated “ that motive is the procedure that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behaviors and public presentation. That is, it is the procedure of exciting people to action and to accomplish a coveted undertaking. One manner of stimulating people is to use effectual motive, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their occupations. Money is non the lone incentive. There are other inducements which can besides function as incentives. ”

Steers & A ; Rhodes ( 1978 ) , developed the most common theoretical account of absenteeism. They depicted that attending is determined by the employee ‘s motive to travel to work. However, Lee ( 1989 ) evaluated the theoretical facts of the Steers & A ; Rhodes Model ( 1978 ) and found that motive is non strongly related to attending. However, the survey of Burton. J. P, Lee. T. W, Holtom. B. C ( 2002 ) , claimed that illness absenteeism was related to one ‘s motive to go to work. That is, harmonizing to some theories sickness absenteeism is non merely due to illness but it may be voluntary, Brooke ( 1986 ) . Employees might utilize illness as an alibi non to travel to work, where there are other causes of this peculiar behavior, Martocchio ( 1996 ) . Furthermore, the Recruitment and Employment Confederation ( REC ) suggested that in order to cut down absence, the best manner was to guarantee that employees are well-motivated by their occupations. And to actuate employees, employers have to maintain them informed of their sub-rosa schemes for endurance during recession, Anne Fairweather ( 2009 ) , caput of public policy at an administration.

Motivated employees can be productive employees. Recognition, working environment and work accomplishment are factors that can maintain employees motivated therefore extremely productive. Employees who achieve the ends directed by their supervisor are normally well-motivated. And expect acknowledgment after the long hours of difficult work, for case an addition in salary, fillips or publicities. Harmonizing to a research carried out by Forces Today ( 2008 ) , employees were more productive when they received acknowledgment for their work and congratulations from direction. Working environment is another factor to actuate employees in being productive and need to be provided with a pleasant environment to work. Therefore it can be noted that motive is necessary to increase productiveness.

Personal Issues

Every employee in any administration has to travel through personal issues. It can be observed that confronting these issues most of the clip and energy of that peculiar individual is focused on their personal issue they are covering with. Personal issues can take the signifier of household jobs, sick parents or immature kids to take attention of, drug maltreatment, imbibing jobs, sexual orientation and many more deflecting one from his or her occupation. Harmonizing to Ericson ( 2001 ) issues like kid and eldercare, single-parent households are those features that might take to an impact on absenteeism at any degree in an administration. Furthermore, Goff et Al. ( 1990 ) found that when 1 ‘s work and household issues are conflicting there is a greater frequence of absenteeism. It has besides been noted that direction in most administrations are indulgent, staffs make alibis of being ill so as non to go to work, accordingly, entering a ill leave. This is besides common in the air power sector particularly among staffs holding uneven on the job hours ; they find it easier to register for ill leave so as to be able to pull off their ain issues. Shift work influence the working picks of parents and to be able to retain shift workers child-care services should be offered, P. D. Brandon and J. B. Temple ( 2007 ) .

Employees have to do certain that they do non convey their personal issues into the office. Therefore, administrations must be able to supply a pleasant environment where employees would non believe about their personal issues alternatively of concentrating on their work. Some company might besides supply psychological aid to their staffs. As personal jobs can take to a autumn in productiveness.

Health Related Issues

Health publicity seems to impact positively on employees ‘ wellness, morale, degree of sickness absenteeism and productiveness. Unfortunately it is noted that the necessary constructions and installations to advance wellness are non available at Air Mauritius, nevertheless, direction has shown its purpose to alter the state of affairs and has set up health and fittingness Centres.

Chronic Diseases

Chronic diseases do hold an impact on employees ‘ illness absence and illnesss at work, illustration of chronic diseases are diabetics, malignant neoplastic diseases among others. The productiveness of the administration is besides affected when the employee is ill. For illustration an employee enduring a peculiar signifier of malignant neoplastic disease will hold assorted complications and might non be able to go to work for a few yearss. This will take to a deficiency of staff, therefore increasing the work load of others. Therefore, administrations can exert some control over unwellnesss by guaranting a safe and healthy workplace, proper ergonomic design, wellness and safety direction 27policies/practices to turn to absenteeism in the workplace ( Ericson, 2001 ) . These can ease healthier working environments and supply favorable conditions to cut down absenteeism and enhance satisfaction and productiveness.

Fatigue and Stress

Harmonizing to the New Grolier Webster International Dictionary of English Language weariness is defined as the fatigue of a individual ‘s physical or mental energy. More precisely it is described as a specific reaction of our cardinal nervous system and muscular system due to effort ( S. L. Smith et al. , 2009 ) . That is, the exhaustion of strength due to continued emphasis. Stress on the other manus is identified as factors doing mental or emotional strain or tenseness to a individual ( New Grolier Webster International Dictionary of English Language ) . Khodabakhsh Ahmadi and Kolivand Alireza, ( 2007 ) stated that “ emphasis is frequently used to depict the organic structure ‘s responses to demands placed upon it, whether these demands are favorable or unfavorable. ” In this context nevertheless, emphasis is related to the work topographic point where due to unsatisfactory work administration, direction, environmental design and differences between the attempts put into work compared to the wagess received ( S. L. Smith et al. , 2009 ) .

The degree of work-related emphasis has increased accordingly during the past few old ages in the air power sector. C. Kelleher & A ; S. McGilloway, 2005, claimed in a research carried out for an Irish air hose that the degree of work-related emphasis among emphasis is high. Khodabakhsh Ahmadi and Kolivand Alireza, 2007, have found that the degree of work emphasis among military pilots has besides increased. The study of the ITF 2009, indicated that there has been a serious addition in emphasis and weariness since 2000.

There are assorted causes of work-related emphasis and weariness in the air power sector. The uneven and long hours of work which normally consequences in overtime, drain staffs both emotionally and physically. Fatigue and emphasis is besides caused due to the deficiency of remainder. Airline staffs working in different clip zones and uneven hours are the 1s experience chronic slumber want. A rise in the degree of flights and riders has led to unmanageable work burden due to high work demands doing emphasis and weariness among staffs. The tradition of overbooking flights in about all air hoses is the cause of assorted jobs. Passengers who find themselves left behind due to the deficiency of seats on the flights are normally ferocious and tend to shout at staffs utilizing opprobrious linguistic communication therefore emphasizing them.

Peoples working in the air power sector have experience a consequent rise in the emphasis degree at work ( S. L. Smith et al. , 2009 ) . Hence this impact on sickness absenteeism and illness therefore impacting the productiveness degree of employees.

Injury at work

An administration must do certain that it provides the proper safety equipment to its employees. This is because accidents can go on where employees could be injured. This would do sickness absenteeism due to the employee ‘s inability to go to work, taking to a autumn in productiveness due to the deficiency of employees and increased work burden on those present at work. Besides the costs on medical disbursals incurred by employees as a consequence of medical attention received following an accident at work are of a great shortage to any administration. An illustration of how much Air Mauritius Ltd spent due to injury at work is illustrated as follows:

Year

Sum of medical disbursals ( 000Rs )

2006-2007

2.6 M

2007-2008

5.7M

2008-2009

4.3M

2009-2010

1.2M

2.5 Development of Hypotheses

The execution of the aims requires a better account of the inquiries that one want to react and the hypotheses that are to be demonstrated. A list of such hypotheses is given below with some statements of the issues raised. Different administrations face different sickness absenteeism rates. It seems sensible to presume that the sickness absenteeism rate may correlate with several factors such as organizational committedness, occupation engagement, occupation satisfaction and so on. A study in the administration shall cast visible radiation on these issues.

Organizational Committedness

Is there a relationship between illness absenteeism and organizational committedness? There are different types of organizational committedness, these are analysed in the survey and would find which type of committedness the employees have for the administration and if these causes sickness absenteeism. Therefore corroborating or annuling the hypothesis.

Job Involvement

Is sickness absenteeism determined by the degree of occupation engagement? Measuring if employees are involved in their occupation and finding if deficiency of engagement could take to sickness absenteeism would formalize or invalidate the hypothesis. If there is a deficiency of engagement, farther surveies have to be carried out to happen out how can the administration addition occupation engagements.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction could take to sickness absenteeism. Analyzing if employees are satisfied with their occupation and finding whether a deficiency of occupation satisfaction would do sickness absenteeism in the administration. That is, the survey will set up the relationship between occupation satisfaction and sickness absenteeism.

Organizational Culture

Does the administration encourage illness absenteeism? The survey will reason the hypothesis that sickness absenteeism is an organizational civilization or non. Therefore if the job is found to be within the civilization the administration will hold to reexamine its policies and execute farther surveies on the issue.

Motivation

Is the degree of sickness absenteeism will be based on the motive to go to work? The survey will analyze the inquiry and if this is established, the causes of this deficiency of motive should be determined. Therefore, the administration will hold to reply farther inquiries like why do employees miss motive, and what are the steps to be taken to increase motive at work?

Personal Issues

Are personal issues a cause of illness absenteeism? The survey will analyze whether personal issue might be a cause of sickness absenteeism. Hence, denoting whether the hypothesis is valid or non. As a consequence, the administration will hold to transport out extra research to happen out what type of personal issues does its employees face. So as to happen solutions this will accordingly eliminate the job.

Chronic Diseases

Employees enduring chronic diseases such as diabetes and malignant neoplastic disease among others are prone to be often absent. Therefore, the survey will analyze whether staffs suffer from chronic or short-run unwellness. The proof of the hypothesis will necessitate that auxiliary surveies are made so as to better the quality of life at work of these peculiar employees, and besides supplying the appropriate attention needed.

Stress and Fatigue

Sickness absenteeism is the ground of emphasis and weariness among employees? Investigating whether this hypothesis stands or non will reason if the administration will hold to happen out ways to cut down the degree of emphasis and weariness, once more bettering the quality of life at work.

Safety at work

Do employees experience safe at work? Are they given the appropriate safety equipments? Does hurt at work occurs on a regular basis? Answering these inquiries would supply a position of the existent state of affairs and set up whether this could be an account of sickness absenteeism.

2.6 Decision

The literature reappraisal has focused on the wellness and non-health issues that could take sickness absenteeism and illness in an administration and inducements of what can be done to cut down these. Therefore on this footing, the undertaking would be structured to measure the causes of sickness absenteeism and illness and its impacts on the productiveness degree of employees and besides find the demand of an absence direction policy at Air Mauritius.

3 Company Profile

3.1 Introduction

Air Mauritius Limited is the national air hose of Mauritius, based in Port-Louis. It was incorporated on the 14th June 1967. It operates international air services for the passenger car of riders and lading, every bit good as provides accessory services in Mauritius. It is besides involved in the operation of a hotel and leases out office and commercial infinite. In add-on, Air Mauritius provides chopper services, including rubber-necking Tourss, rider transportation, aerial picture taking, and shooting flights services. Further, the company offers call centre and information engineering enabled services.

The Airline national bearer of the Republic of Mauritius, operates flights to over 24 finishs on 4 continents with a fleet of 4 Airbus A340-300, 2 Airbus A340-300E, 2 Airbus A330-200, 2 Airbus A319-100 and 2 ATR 72-500. Air Mauritius carried 1.1 million riders in the last fiscal twelvemonth 2009/2010. Air Mauritius has 2,254 employees and is an of import accelerator for the cardinal sectors of the economic system in Mauritius and, in peculiar, the touristry industry. Indian Ocean ‘s Leading Airline class was one time once more won by Air Mauritius Limited for the 4th back-to-back twelvemonth.

The Company being committed to high criterions of corporate administration, the Board is accountable to the stockholders for good administration. The Board is led by the Chairman while the executive direction of the Company is led by the Chief Executive Officer. Their several functions are separate and are recognised in footings of the Report on Corporate Governance for Mauritius. The function of the Board is to supply entrepreneurial leading of the Company within a model of prudent and effectual controls, which enables hazard to be assessed and managed.

3.2 Organizational Structure

Apart from its Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Office, Air Mauritius is made up of the undermentioned bunchs:

Flight Operationss

Cabin Operationss

Evidences Operationss

Technical Servicess

Human Resources & A ; Organisational Development

Internal Audit

Finance & A ; Information Systems

Strategic Planning

Communication & A ; Corporate Affairs & A ; Commercial

Procurement

Cargo

3.2.1 Manpower composing

Air Mauritius has a entire work force of 2199 employees who work in Mauritius and it comprises of:

Male

1406

Female

793

Entire

2199

No of employees

4 Methodology

4.1 Introduction

Every company operates under some grade of uncertainness. This uncertainness can non be eliminated wholly, although it can be minimised with the aid of research. Research is peculiarly of import in the determination doing procedure of assorted concern administrations to take the best line of action. Therefore research can be defined as the systematic design, aggregation, and analysis and coverage of informations and findings relevant to a specific state of affairs.

In this peculiar state of affairs, Air Mauritius Ltd confronting high rate of illness absenteeism and illness which might be impacting productiveness at work. The rate of illness absences and illness among staffs are increasing considerately.

The intent of this research will be to analyze sickness absenteeism and illness at Air Mauritius Ltd in order to place the grounds why employees are often absent from work and autumn sick and besides assess whether these impact on productiveness. Thus, taking actions to work out the job ; forestalling unneeded wastage of resources, losingss due to be incurred in medical outgo and safety issues where staffs put themselves at hazard.

4.2 Research Approach

There are two chief types of research attack viz. qualitative and quantitative attack. Qualitative attack is normally used to cognize more about things that can non be easy measured it besides allows the respondents to give their ain point of position. However, due to miss of clip and handiness of the needed resources qualitative attack can non be used for this survey. This research will be based on the rationalist paradigm, that is, it will seek to understand the causes and effects of the job and have an nonsubjective account as end. That is, the informations will represent of the replies to the research inquiries and to prove the hypothesis. As a consequence, it will be based on the quantitative attack. This is because informations garnering utilizing the quantitative attack is more structured and consist of preset inquiries that respondents would hold to reply enabling direct comparings between consequences. Another advantage is that the sample used tends to be larger than the qualitative attack which would assist to bring forth quantifiable informations on behaviors and attitudes of the population. The quantitative information are presented in statistical signifiers, utilizing statistical tools and techniques such as line graphs, frequence tabular arraies, standard divergence etc. For the intent of this survey the SPSS package will be used for analyzing the information to happen relationship between variables and set uping frequence and per centum of the responses.

The methodological analysis used for this research undertaking was the study method. Survey research is the most common method of roll uping primary informations for direction determinations. Survey research is the systematic assemblage of information from respondents for the intent of understanding and foretelling some facet of the behavior of the population of involvement. It is consist of disposal of questionnaires among respondents indiscriminately chosen.

Survey research is:

The cheapest method of roll uping informations

Respondents can make full out questionnaire

Respondents can read the whole questionnaire before replying any inquiries.

A sample of the questionnaire is provided in Appendix I

However, the failing of this attack is the trust on respondents. Their willingness to react and their ability to reply the inquiries is important. The research worker should be cognizant of the possibility of respondents taking cognition or sentiment respondents ‘ misunderstanding of inquiries and being intentionally misled.

The questionnaires administered to the staffs should be good designed in order to forestall these types of mistakes to be go oning. The chief aim of the questionnaire is to cognize how staffs experience about their occupations, the manner it is being managed therefore measuring the consequence illness absence and illness on productiveness at Air Mauritius Ltd. The questionnaire will measure their degree of motive, occupation satisfaction, and administration committedness, environment at work, and work-related emphasis and weariness and so on.

4.3 Questionnaire Design

While planing a questionnaire on demands to pay attending to inquiries:

Wordings

Contentss

Sequences

Types of inquiries used

Avoid humdrum

Use clear vocabulary to avoid misinterpretation of words and besides prevent usage of equivocal words

Questions have to be direct and simple so as to avoid colored responses.

Taking all these in consideration, respondents will be encouraged to make full the questionnaire candidly. The questionnaire has to be designed with closed inquiries with the ability of saying their ain point of position on certain inquiries. Closed inquiries can be classified in two classs viz. dichotomous and multiple-choice inquiries.

The questionnaire consists of five subdivisions viz. :

Section A: About yourself

In this subdivision one will cognize more about the respondent. It consists of his/her age scope, gender, matrimonial position, figure of kids, place position and the income degree. This will assist to analyze which class of people are most likely to be affected by the job of illness absence and illness.

Section B: Percept about illness and illness absence

In this subdivision the research worker will be able to analyze what are the frequence of sickness absence and illness of employees, find the factors that can take to sickness absences and besides larn how employees classify their illness.

Section C: Percept about productiveness

Here besides the research will cognize which factors affects productiveness at work and whether sickness absence and illness affects the productiveness of the administration.

Section D: Percept about the existent state of affairs

This subdivision will assist the research worker to larn about the causes of sickness absence and illness at work.

Section Tocopherol: Incentives of the administration

Last, the research worker will be able to find what the employees would desire the administration to make so as to cut down sickness absence and illness at work.

4.4 Population

Having decided on the method to garner informations, the population should be now chosen. Population refers to the full group of people, events or things of involvement that the research worker wishes to look into. In mention to my job statement, sickness absenteeism and illness is frequent among the displacement working staff. The chief sections that falls under this class are the Engineering section, Cabin Operations that is the cabin crews and the Ground Operations which consist of checking, lading.

However, due to miss of clip and the size of the population this survey focuses chiefly on the Ground Operations Checking section as it has been noted that this section faces a big sum of sickness absence. Besides in the technology section inducements such as an attending policy has been put in topographic point where workers enjoy a fillip of Rs4000 every months for being on clip and nowadays at work has been established. This has lead to a autumn in absenteeism and lateness at work. And on the other manus, the sickness degree of the cabin crews is non every bit high as compared to the checking section.

4.5 Sampling

A sample is a subset of the population. It comprises some members selected from it. The grounds for utilizing a sample, instead than roll uping informations from the full population, are axiomatic. If whole population is involved, it would be practically impossible to roll up informations, from, or trial, or analyze every component. Analyzing a sample instead than the full population is besides sometimes likely to bring forth more dependable consequences. In the checking section the population is of 200 employees. Therefore, to do the survey more accurate a sample size of 100 employees is targeted.

4.6 Pilot Test

To guarantee that are no trouble encountered during the disposal of the questionnaire, a pilot trial of the instrument must be carried out with a smaller sample of employees holding more or less the same features of the chosen representative sample but who will non take part in the probe.

The pilot survey will be carried out to cognize whether the inquiries are decently worded, sequenced, and easy for minimizing by the respondents and whether some of import issues have been missed.

Harmonizing to Bless & A ; Higson-Smith ( 2000:15 ) the pre-testing of a measuring instrument consists of seeking it out on a little figure of individuals holding same features similar to those of the aiming group. It is a procedure whereby the research design for a prospective study is tested.

4.7 Restrictions of survey