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The Beginning Of The 19th Century History Essay

In the beginning of the 19th century, the United States began to recognize the importance of transit and the many positive effects that would ensue, if transit could be improved. Peter L. Bernstein writes in his book, “ Wedding of the Waters ” , about the formation, production, and the completion of the Erie Canal, associating the Hudson River with Lake Erie. Bernstein tells the narrative of how the Erie Canal transformed the US into a great state by turn outing that Americans could prevail over all obstructions that came their manner, including political conflicts, deficit of fundss, and deficiency of engineering and experience. The Godheads of the canal were avid and motivated and had a “ vision of [ the universe ‘s ] long-run hereafter, ” non merely for the United States, but for the remainder of the universe ( Bernstein 21 ) .

The undertaking started every bit early as 1768 when the thought of the canal was foremost proposed, but it was n’t until 1808 that a map was constructed, and in 1817 the building began. It was n’t until 1825, New York celebrated the completion of the Erie Canal when a keg of H2O from the canal was poured into the Atlantic Ocean by Governor De Witt Clinton. This auspicious ceremonial is widely known as the Wedding of the Waters. Bernstein writes that the canal was “ the kid of many dreamersaˆ¦ whom had ne’er seen a canal before and few of whom had any experience in designing, edifice, or runing a canal ” ( Bernstein 21 ) . All the workers, including the applied scientists, came with no old experience, but together they were able to construct a canal that stretched over 360 stat mis long, with 83 locks so that the boats could go 675 pess vertically ( Bernstein 26 & A ; 381 ) . Bernstein believes without the Erie Canal, the western districts would hold separated from the eastern provinces and the United Stated would hold divided along the Appalachian Mountains.

The thought of edifice canals did non arise in the United States, but began in ancient times. Early canals began as a series of dikes on a watercourse, where the velocity of the H2O would force the boat frontward. This would work traveling downstream, but to speed up in the opposite way a group of work forces or animate beings were necessary to draw the boat upstream. The Babylonians used this method, constructing the Shatt-el-hai Canal around 2200 BC in order to go from the Euphrates and Tigris River. The size of Shatt-el-hai Canal paled in comparing to the Grand Canal, which was built by the Chinese in 600 BC, runing over a 1000 stat mis. Following the Chinese, were the Romans, Europeans, the Gallic, and more. For all these assorted civilisations, canals brought easy travel and economic prosperity. Why has the Erie Canal go so celebrated compared to all the other canal built before it?

The Erie Canal opened many doors for the United States, non merely by heightening the state ‘s travel and economic sciences, but besides unifying the citizens on either side of the Appalachian Mountains. Compared to other canals in the universe, the Erie Canal was built “ in the least clip, with the least experience, for the least money, and [ had ] the greatest public benefit ” ( Roots ) . The first adult male to acknowledge the canal ‘s potency was, Cadwallader Colden, an immigrant from Ireland who worked as a scientist, doctor, and surveyor. It was when he was sent to research the districts west of New York, when he realized the importance of bettering pilotage. He so started the early thought of a canal that would link E to west and obtained the “ resolved strong belief that his state ‘s full hereafter rested on the successful completion of this undertaking ” ( Bernstein 61 ) . After printing these concerns, the governor of New York in 1768, Sir Henry Moore, proposes that “ the importance of our inland pilotage as a affair of the greatest importance to the state, and worthy of their serious consideration ” ( Bernstein 53 ) . But transit was non a high precedence so. There was war between the British and the Gallic, every bit good as the Indians. America was still fighting for independency until 1782, when King George III declared the American Revolution to be officially over.

George Washington continued Colden ‘s dream by being the first to try to raise the fundss needed, map out the undertaking, and employ applied scientists. Washington had good purposes, but it would take more than good purposes to do this dream a world. The undertaking required the committedness of 1000000s of dollars, but the investors failed to present the money they had promised. In the early 1800 ‘s, they realized the “ resources of private investors or local authoritiess are excessively little to accomplish a greater end ” ( Bernstein 113 ) . De Witt Clinton, ten-term major and three times governor of New York presented the undertaking and the funding that would be needed for it to be accomplished and was denied the money until 1810. Even so, “ raising money was the easy portion ” ( Bernstein 72 ) . The rivers were non in first-class status for going. There were many obstructions such as, inundations, immense stones, frequent waterfalls, shallow Waterss, significant sums of wilderness, etc. Many work forces persisted in seeking to get the better of these barriers, but there were still many breaks and holds, caused by political spat and a crew that lacked experience in planing and undertaking. Trade within the United States became even more of import when the Napoleonic Wars began in Europe. This led to the Embargo Act, which banned trade with any other state. Because the U.S. could no longer purchase textile supplies from Britain, Americans were forced to open up their ain fabric Millss.

The bulk of the citizens of America became in favour of the undertaking “ when Clinton made the canal the cardinal focal point of his long and distinguished political calling ” ( Bernstein 134 ) . The thought of constructing the canal became more accepted by the populace when the proposal became more practical. Clinton would be the 1 who transformed “ the canal from visions and meetings and expeditions into a operation world ” ( Bernstein 164 ) . On July 4th, 1817, all the statements and battles became deserving the attempt when building began on the Erie Canal. The wellness of the United States ‘ economic sciences, every bit good as the stock market, skyrocketed every bit shortly as building began. The undertaking provided many people with occupations, using over three 1000s work forces to build the canal ( Bernstein 247 ) . The value of land in the locality of the canal increased by 91 per centum and over 80 per centum of New York ‘s population moved within 25 stat mis of the canal. Many of the small towns that surrounded the canal became immense industrial centres as a consequence of the increased sums of commercial activity. Agribusiness was transformed from subsistence farming to a profitable support. Factories and Millss flourished. America was able to export a turning sum of green goods to fulfill Europe ‘s high demand for nutrient. The canal “ would adhere the United States to Europe every bit good as fall ining eastern Americans to the West ” ( Bernstein 380 ) .

Peoples would come from all over to wonder at its beauty of the Erie Canal. It was considered one of the admirations of the universe and perceived as “ a combination of Disneyland, the Grand Canyon, and a hi-tech research lab in Silicon Valley ” ( Bernstein 325 ) . The canal exceeded everybody ‘s outlooks. Clinton believed it would “ convey more wealths on its Waterss than any other canal in the universe ” but little did he cognize that it would besides convey “ economic growing, urbanisation, national integrity, globalisation, networking, and technological invention ” ( Bernstein 343 ) . This gave the people a sense of ardor, enthusiasm, and optimism about their hereafter and the hereafter of coevalss to come, giving “ a message of hope for a great immature state ” ( Bernstein 27 ) .

There were so many positive results, that the disadvantages seemed minuscular. Like all canals, it was an highly expensive undertaking and after it was built the canal still needed to be maintained throughout the twelvemonth. The Erie Canal was easy manageable during most of the twelvemonth, until winter came. The storms created unforeseen jobs, such as implosion therapy of the canal and freeze of the H2O for long periods of clip, which led the “ snow and ice [ to falsify ] the Bankss, and much of the towing path country had to be rebuilt and set solid ” ( Bernstein 334 ) . These jobs could hold been avoided by larning how other canals avoid bad conditions, but as stated earlier, the applied scientists had no old experience. They were go oning betterments on the canal until the early 20th century, including edifice dikes and ditches to avoid implosion therapy and spread outing the canal so that larger boats could transport through the canal. Another unforeseen result came from working in moisture, boggy conditions, a disease called swamp febrility, killing over a 1000 workers. The canal besides contributed to America ‘s “ devotedness to money ” ( Bernstein 346 ) , which was observed by Michael Chevalier, a Gallic economic expert. The concern roar allowed the provinces to be unified in trade, but it besides alienated persons by each seeking to be more successful than the other. “ Money and finance centered in New York ” and allowed the working category to do purchases for luxury instead than necessitate ( Bernstein 362 & A ; 367 ) . Many did non detect these affects at the clip, and many still do non recognize them today.

Although much of the canal has been destroyed or is in ruins and is no longer used for lading, it is used for recreational intents and is thought to be a “ religious experience ” ( Bernstein 259 ) , but is much less of import ( Sadoski ) . Technology has improved so much today that there is small usage for a canal in the United States. There were no designs used in the 1800 ‘s, alternatively their methods and tools were developed as the undertaking progressed ( Roots ) . Some tools that helped construct the canal were Equus caballuss, mules, waggons, garden cart, manus tools, and 1000s of Irish workers ( Roots ) . In order to hold a successful canal, much wilderness had to be cut down. Many conservationist and spiritual people protested and felt strongly that we should go forth the land how God intended it to be. The programs proceeded, with the advocates reasoning that they were merely heightening what God had given them. One of the applied scientists, Canvass White, was sent to England to analyze the different processs they used for constructing their canals and locks. White returned with new designs and a better apprehension of how to construct and run a canal. They chose to get down in New York because it was easy accessible and more seeable to boats coming from the Atlantic Ocean. There was difference over where the canal should stop, either Buffalo or Black Rock, but “ settled on Buffalo as the best topographic point for the end point of the canal ” ( Bernstein288 ) . Although there were many political differences, breaks caused by wars, and inefficient sum of stuffs and instruction in the 1700 ‘s and 1800 ‘s, it did non count what clip era the Erie Canal was built because the interior decorators and Godheads were so motivated that they would do this undertaking possible no affair what obstruction came in their manner, and because of this, America ‘s history would be changed everlastingly.

Bernstein ‘s book was without a uncertainty, enthusiastic about the Erie Canal and believes it to be a monumental portion of history, but tried excessively difficult to convert the reader that it is the most of import event in US history. He repeats facts and sentiments multiple times and writes over 300 pages on events that could hold been written in a much briefer text. There is a batch of unneeded item and Bernstein tried to carry the world-weary reader that “ the narrative is deserving stating in item ” ( Bernstein 219 ) . He besides goes off on many tangents that are non needed to understand the history of the canal or anything related to the canal. The book besides got confounding when he backtracked to different day of the months. Overall, the book is really enlightening and gives the reader a good sense of what it was like during the clip the canal was built.