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The arc welding of mild steel


The microstructure of a stuff is important when it comes to the belongingss and features of a peculiar stuff. It would be perfect if the belongingss and features, which are related to the microstructure, of the parent metal, heat affected zone and the dyer’s rocket metal is the same. However the chance of happening of such a state of affairs is really less since the parent metals are used in the shaped signifier and the dyer’s rocket metals are used in the dramatis personae signifier. Shaped stuffs got superior strength, ductileness and stamina when it is weighed against the stuffs in the dramatis personae signifier. Even so the dyer’s rocket metal belongingss draws near the belongingss of the shaped stuff, since it is a small letter projecting which is quickly cooled. This state of affairs is peculiarly related with the ferric stuffs, which includes mild steel besides ( Houldcroft and John, 1988 ) . The study holds the information sing the development of microstructure during the arc welding of mild steel home base, alterations which occur in the heat affected zone and the alteration in the construction of the steel when the C equivalent of the steel was increased.

Mild steel

Steel with a low C content of 0.25 % is known as mild steel. Mild steel is easy to weld and manufacture because of its low C content since it would non acquire harden by heat intervention. This leads to the deficiency of hard-boiled zones in the heat affected zones and dyer’s rockets, even though there is speedy chilling. As the C content additions, the easiness in welding reduces because of the slaking action ( Davies, 1993 ) .


Welding is chiefly classified into two welding methods and they are ( 1 ) Plastic welding and ( 2 ) Fusion welding. It can be farther fragmented into eight divisions on the footing of its specific procedures and they are ( 1 ) Cold welding, ( 2 ) Thermit Welding, ( 3 ) Gas welding, ( 4 ) Resistance welding, ( 5 ) Arc welding, ( 6 ) Braze welding, ( 7 ) Forge welding, ( 8 ) Initiation welding. The welding procedures such as Cold welding, Pressure welding, Resistance welding and Forge welding comes under the Plastic welding division whereas the welding procedures such as Gas welding, Thermit welding, Induction welding and Arc welding belongs to the Fusion welding procedures ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Arc welding

The electrode stuff and shielding technique are the footing of categorization of Arc welding procedures. In mass production, the automatic welding technique is really of import and the Arc welding technique is good adapted to it. Added on to this, Arc welding technique imposes a batch of flexibleness to the connection of both thin and heavy subdivisions of a stuff. Another trait of Arc welding procedure is that the heat application in this peculiar welding procedure is extremely concentrated when compared to other welding procedures ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Microstructure of dyer’s rocket metal

The microstructure of the dyer’s rocket metal is chiefly dependent upon the metal content of the C steel. Whereas in C, C manganese and micro-alloyed steel, the dyer’s rocket metal microstructure is chiefly affected by the welding process and composing of the dyer’s rocket.

Harmonizing to Lancaster, 1999, the microstructure of Carbon-Manganese metal steel is affected by the facets such as chilling rate, composing, plastic strain and the presence of non-metallic karyon. Figure 2.1 shows the consequence of chilling rate and composing on constructions produced in the dyer’s rocket.

The above inside informations show that the steel incorporating less than 0.30 % C will hold similar microstructures after the welding procedure. During the Arc welding of mild steel a figure of distinct structural zones, such as unaffected, passage, refined, coarsened, merger and deposited metal zones are formed. These zones are shown in the diagram and it is compared with the relevant subdivision of the iron-iron carbide diagram. Many of these zones will non be holding distinct line of limit and they appear to be merged together ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Unaffected zone

In the unaffected zone, the parent mild steel is non heated to an equal sum to make the critical scope. Therefore, the construction is unchanged and the unaffected zone represents the archetypical grain construction of the parent mild steel. The figure shows the microstructure of the unaffected zone of mild steel. It consists of a typical combination of ferrite and pearlite ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Passage zone

Following to the unaffected zone, there exists a part where there is a temperature scope, between the A1 and A3 transmutation temperatures, in which a limited allotropic recrystallization takes topographic point and this peculiar zone is known as the transitional zone. The passage zone has a microstructure of both ferrite and pearlite. But the size of the pearlite part will be different from that in the unaffected zone. The pearlite part will be much finer which is due to the warming of the mild steel to the critical scope and due to the chilling after the warming procedure. During the warming procedure, the pearlite will be transformed into austenite and so transformed into finer pearlite grains on chilling ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Refined zone

After the passage zone, comes the refined zone. In this zone, the temperature is heated merely above the A3 temperature and the finest grain construction exists in this part as a consequence of the extended grain polish. The figure shows the microstructure of the refined zone of the mild steel. The microstructure consists of much finer constructions of pearlite and ferrite. These constructions are formed from the austenite which existed at a temperature merely above the upper critical temperature ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Coarsened zone

The part next to the refined part is known as the coarsened zone. In this zone, the temperature is higher than the A3 temperature and the grain construction will be coarsened. When it comes to the coarsened zone, the microstructure will be dominated by pearlite grains and ferrite will be of smaller grain. Due to the prevailed rate of chilling, the pearlite will demo a higher rate of finer grains than that existed in the original pearlite countries, when it is magnified ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Fusion zone

The existent thaw of the parent metal takes topographic point when the temperature is higher than the bezant and the zone in which this takes topographic point is known as the merger zone. In the merger zone, the microstructure will be of a really harsh construction. This type of construction is common in mild steel where the peculiar construction is formed from the big austenite grains when the chilling rate is of a medium gait. The undermentioned figure shows the microstructure in the merger zone ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Deposited metal zone

The deposited metal zone is a zone along with the merger zone where there is a harsh grain construction and it happens when a filler metal is added to the dyer’s rocket. The construction of deposited metal zone is shown in the figure. As you can see in the figure, the microstructure consists of columnar construction of ferrite and pearlite ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Heat affected zone

The possibility of executing a welding procedure without constructing up a thermic gradient in the parent metal is about negligible. The temperature and the velocity of the welding procedure is really influential in make up one’s minding the spread of heat into the parent metal. The thermic gradient will acquire compressed by the high power welding at high velocity ( Houldcroft and John, 1988 ) .

The conventional study of a dyer’s rocket, heat affected zone and relevant part of the iron-carbide stage diagram is shown in the figure 3.1. The base metal is heated up to a peak temperature and it varies along with the distance from the merger line. If the lower critical temperature, A1, was surpassed by the peak temperature, so there will be a transmutation from ferrite to austenite. This transmutation will be complete and an austenitic microstructure is formed when the temperature goes beyond the upper critical temperature, A3. The ferrite construction is stable at room temperature and has bcc crystal construction whereas the austenite construction is stable at high temperature and has fcc crystal construction ( Raj et al, 2006 ) .

The heat affected zone of an arc dyer’s rocket in steel is classified into three parts, such as supercritical, intercritical and subcritical parts, from a metallurgical position ( Lancaster, 1999 ) .

The supercritical zone

The supercritical zone can be classified into the grain growing part and the grain refined part. Coarse grain heat affected zone ( CGHAZ ) is the term which is used to mention to the part of heat affected zone where extended growing of austenite grains takes topographic point when the temperature goes beyond the temperature of 1300 degree Celsius. The part next to the CGHAZ, which is at a temperature scope of 900 to 1200 grade Celsius, is known as the Fine grained heat affected zone ( FGHAZ ) . In this part of the steel, the austenite grain size remains little ( Raj et al, 2006 ) .

The intercritical zone

The intercritical part is narrow when compared to other zones and partial transmutation takes topographic point in this zone. The part of HAZ, which is holding a temperature scope in between the critical temperatures A1 and A3 is referred as Inter critical heat affected zone ( ICHAZ ) ( Raj et al, 2006 ) .

The subcritical zone

In the subcritical zone, non much discernible change in the microstructure will be at that place except the happening of a little part of spheroidization, which is hard to observe. The treated zone and unaffected base stuff comes under this zone ( Raj et al, 2006 ) .

The microstructures such as ferrite and other metastable stages are formed during the chilling rhythm of a welding procedure, from an austenite microstructure which was formed at high temperatures. For dyer’s rockets produced with equal pre-heat or for high heat input welding, the chilling rate will be less and this leads to the formation of a mixture of ferrite and carbides whereas in a high chilling rate scenario, microstructures such as bainite or martensite are formed from austenite. The formation of bainite and martensite is besides affected by the sum of C content and alloying elements. This peculiar trait of steel to organize a difficult microstructure such as bainite or martensite from austenite stage when cooled at high rate is by and large referred to as hardenability and this increases with the austenite grain size and metal content of the steel. Therefore in the instance of mild steel, the microstructure of the heat affected zone ( HAZ ) is of carbide and ferrite after executing an discharge welding even if it is performed without any preheating ( Raj et al, 2006 ) .

The consequence in the addition of carbon-equivalent of steel

The C equivalent plays an of import function in make up one’s minding the microstructure of the steel. Along with this, the chilling rate during the welding procedure excessively plays a decisive function in this respect. The chance of formation of martensite or bainite in high C tantamount steels is high and in order to avoid that state of affairs, usage of typical techniques, such as preheating and post-heating are required ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Carbon tantamount computation

In order to discourse about the consequence of C equivalent in make up one’s minding the microstructure of mild steel during the arc welding procedure, foremost we have to discourse the expression which is used to cipher the C equivalent of steel. The C equivalent can be calculated by the expression.

CE= C % + ( Mn % ) /6 + ( Cr % +Mo % +V % ) /5 + ( Ni % +Cu % ) /15 ( Davies, 1993 ) .

This expression is relevant to the field C and C manganese steel but it is non applicable to micro-alloyed high strength low-alloy steel or low metal Cr-Mo type.

Due to Ito and Bessyo, the expression used by Nipponese Welding Engineering Society is Pcm= C + Si/30 + ( Mn+Cu+Cr ) /20 + Ni/60 + Mo/15 + V/10 + 5B ( Lancaster, 1999 ) .

As mentioned in the old subdivisions, the formation of difficult microstructures such as bainite and martensite is dependent upon the chilling rate every bit good as the C equivalent in the steel. During the welding procedure of mild steel, the heat will be absorbed faster by the steel and creates a sudden autumn of temperature ( Raj et al, 2006 ) .

Here, steels with three different C contents are compared with the aid of an Iron-Iron Carbide Equilibrium diagram. The steel with less than 0.83 percent C content is known as hypo-eutectoid steels, steel with 0.83 per centum C content is known as eutectoid steel and steel with more than 0.83 percent C content is known as hypereutectoid steel ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Steel with 0.1 % C content

This type of steel belongs to the hypo-eutectoid steel. As you can see from the Iron-Iron carbide diagram, when a 0.1 % C steel is cooled at an appropriate rate from 2800 F to room temperature, a mixture of austenite and delta solid solution is formed from the delta solid solution and liquid. On farther chilling, grains of austenite are formed from the former followed by formation of ferrite and austenite. By the clip the chilling is done till the room temperature, a microstructure of ferrite and pearlite will be formed ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Steel with 0.8 % C content

This signifier of steel has a composing which is really nigh to the composing of eutectoid steel. During the procedure of chilling of this steel from 2800F, the transmutation starts from the liquefied province into a liquid and austenite signifier. Then on farther chilling, formation of austenite followed by the eutectoid called pearlite will happen ( Clark, 1962 ) .

Steel with 1.2 % C content

This signifier of steel belongs to the hypereutectoid steel. During the chilling procedure of this steel from 2800F, the transmutation starts from the liquefied province of steel into a liquid and austenite signifier. Then on farther chilling, there will be formation of austenite, combination of austenite and cementite, and ends with ferrite and cementite at room temperature ( Clark, 1962 ) .


Microstructure of steel is a really of import make up one’s minding factor when it comes to its belongingss and behavior. It is obvious from this study that the chilling rate during the welding procedure, composing of dyer’s rocket metal and the type of welding procedure plays a critical function in the formation of the different signifier of microstructures in the dyer’s rocket metal.

The weldability and hardenability of the steel depends a batch on the C content of the steel to be welded. As the C content of steel additions, the weldability of that peculiar steel lessenings and its hardenability additions. This proves that the composing of the dyer’s rocket metal plays an imperative function in the features of a welded stuff.

This study illustrates that the weldability of mild steel is rather good and the function of composing of mild steel in accomplishing so. It besides gives you an thought about the assorted alterations that occur to the microstructure of the mild steel during the arc welding procedure.


  1. Clark, D. and Varney, W. ( 1962 ) Physical metallurgy for Engineers. 2nd edition New York: D Van Nostrand Company.
  2. Davies, A.C. ( 1993 ) The scientific discipline and pattern of welding, vol 2, The pattern of welding. 10th edition Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Houldcroft, P. and John, R. ( 1988 ) Welding and cutting. 1st edition Cambridge: Woodhead-Faulkner Limited.
  4. Raj, B. , Shankar, V. and Bhaduri, A. ( 2006 ) Welding Technology for Engineers. 1st edition Oxford: Alpha Science International Limited.
  5. Lancaster, J.F ( 1999 ) Metallurgy of Welding. 6th edition United kingdom: Abington Publishing.