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Events Leading to the Civil War in America

Events Leading to the Civil War in America


The American civil war that began in 1861 and ended in 1865 resulted to over 618,000 casualties. This war involved the Northern federations and the Southern federations. The Southern provinces separated from the brotherhood and created the Confederacy. In the South, this struggle was known as “Secession War, ” “the war of the Rebellion” every bit good as “the war for southern independence.” Nonetheless, though non allow the term civil war is widely accepted. Therefore, a civil war refers to a war between cabals, groups, parties or inhabitants of different countries or locations within the same state. As such, it involves one group desiring to take control of the province or addition independency or freedom for an country and in conclusion to alter the disposal of the state. Consequently, civil wars involve armed military personnels and as such they lead to casualties.

There are a figure of grounds that can take to civil wars. Similarly, the cause for the American civil war can be drawn back to force per unit areas that developed in the nation’s history. This paper seeks to analyse and analyze the assorted events and causes that led to this civil war in deepness every bit good as set up the relationship between these events.Nevertheless it is of import to observe that the head and chief bone of contention that led to this war in the United States was the slavery factor.

Social and economic discrepancies between the South and North

In 1973, cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney and accordingly, it became really moneymaking. The popularity of this machine spread like shrub fire due to its ability to individual out seeds from cotton. However, the desire of people to switch from other green goodss to cotton implied the demand for a greater figure of inexpensive and low-cost labor. This led to the Southern economic system being extremely dependent on one harvest therefore the demand for slaves. On the contrary, the Northern economic system was extremely dependent on industry as opposed to agriculture ( Foner 2001 ) . In add-on, industries from the North were involved with buying the natural stuffs of cotton and treating them into finished merchandises. This led to the development and creative activity of discrepancies between the South and North every bit good as taking to different attitudes between them in relation to how they felt about economic development. As such, the southern people focused on farming system while the Northern people focused on urban life. This followed that, persons in the South held on the old-fashionednotion of societal order while citizens in the North coped with the fact that the societies evolved therefore the demand to get by up good with every single regardless of category and civilization so as to jointly work together for their common good.

Federal rights versus province rights

From the period of revolution, two cabals arose viz. ; persons who for the sentiment that the authorities ought to take control and those who fought for the demand of greater states’ rights. Following the American Revolution, the first authorities was attributed to the articles of Confederation in which the sum of 13 provinces developed a loose alliance with an highly weak federal disposal. However, when trouble emerged, the defects of the Articles brought together the leaders of that clip to in secret run into at the constitutional convention whereby they secretlydeveloped the United States Constitution ( Kelly 2014 ) . However, many people had the sentiment that the new fundamental law disregarded their rights to transport on with moving freely. Many were of the sentiment that provinces should be given the freedom to find whether they were preparedto consent with federal Acts of the Apostless. Consequently, the provinces came up with the impression of nullification in which as they felt that the federal Acts of the Apostless were unconstitutional. However, the federal authorities objected to this as such, the provinces felt that they had been disrespected and accordingly they progressed for sezession.

The Fight between the non-slaves and slaves supporter

The enlargement of America get downing with the extra additions of land from the buying of Louisiana followed with the Mexican warresulted to the inquiry as to whether those freshly acknowledgedstates would be free or slaves. Consequently, following the Mexican war, dissensions started refering what would be of the new provinces the United States expected to derive entree to following to their triumph. David Wilmot as such came with the proposal known as the Wilmot Proviso in which he proposed that bondage should be banned inthe newstates ( Foner 2001 ) . However, his proposal was rejected and later Henry Clay and others developed the Compromise of 1850 which was intended to cover with making a balance between free and break one’s back provinces every bit good as the southern and northern involvements with the Fugitive Slave act as one of its proviso. This fleeting act was put in topographic point to guarantee that any province functionary who failed to capture a slave who had escaped was capable to pay a all right. However, the sequence of via medias struck out on Capitol Hill succeeded to postpone the civil war ( Kelly 2014 ) .

Another facet that brought force per unit area was Kansas-Nebraska Act formulated in 1854 ( Foner 2001 ) . This act developed two new provinces that would enable the provinces to use the popular sovereignty to analyse whether these new districts will be free or break one’s back. Therefore, the popular sovereignty is a rule that holds that ; the cause of disposal power remainders with the people. Therefore, this rule has its roots from the impression of societal contract. Consequently, this establishes the thought that citizens should profit from their authorities or administrative construction. As such, an administrative unit that does non protect its citizens should be disbanded. This thought originated from the plants of Thomas Hobbes among other authors. Subsequently, this rule of popular sovereignty signifiers the six foundational rules on which the American fundamental law is created. However, the chief job developed when pro-slavery Missourians poured into Kansas seeking to forceit into bondage. This led to a major battle that ended up geting the name “Bleeding Kansas.” During these violent Acts of the Apostless in Kansas, the greatest and most publicised incidence was on May 21, whereby Lawrence, Kansas normally known as a steadfast free country was attacked by the “Border Ruffians.” The twenty-four hours after the onslaught, force broke out at the U.S Senate’s floor. During this incidence, Charles Sumner is pounced on by Preston Brooks, a known pro-slavery congressperson for giving a address that was aimed at assailing the pro-slavery agents for the fierceness that was taking topographic point in Kansas.

Development of the Abolition Movement

The Northerners significantly became more aggressive and in resistance of bondage as such they were against it. Consequently, understandings started to develop for emancipationists every bit good as in contradiction of bondage and the barbarous Acts of the Apostless of slaveholders.This was exacerbated after a series of important events such as the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Stowe and besides due to Dred Scott’s Case and non excepting the foray on John Brown. Harriet’s publication increased people’s consciousness on the dangers and immoralities of bondage. Consequently, it had an huge impact on the Northerners and how they pictured bondage.

On the other manus, Dred Scott’s instance besides exacerbated the demand for abolishment of bondage. In his instance, Dred was looking frontward to hold the tribunal regulation in his favor and declare him a free adult male since he was populating in a free province. However, the tribunal did non govern in his favor establishing their determination on the fact that Dred did non have any belongings to his name. The tribunal besides ruled that he was still a slave despite the fact that his proprietor had taken him to the Free State ( Kelly 2014 ) . As such, the tribunal still viewed him as the belongings of his owner.This did non delight many and raised peoples’ concern.

The other incident was the foray on Harper’s ferry by John Brown a adult male known to be a extremist emancipationist. He had besides taken portion in the aggression that had taken topographic point in Kansas ; as such he was a adult male whose name was sung by all due to his extremist nature. In 1859 the month of October 16, he was at the head and led an assembly of 17 incorporating five black associates to assail the armory that was situated in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. His purpose was fundamentally to make a slave revolution by using the seized arms. Nonetheless, after prehending several substructures, they were surrounded by military personnels and some were captured and others killed. John Brown on the other manus was seized and after test he was accused of lese majesty and as such he was sentenced to decease by hanging ( Kelly 2014 ) .

These events played a main function in exciting people to hold the desire to be free hence, it led to many people experiencing the demand to contend against bondage later ; it furthered the demand for abolishment of slave and every facet of it.

There was besides the creative activity of an Underground Railroad which was used to mouse away runaway slaves and assist them get freedom in the Northern States or over the international boundary of Canada. This Underground web consisted of a loose connexion of militants who helped slaves to procure freedom ( McNamara 2014 ) . The organisation did non necessitate a formal rank but instead consisted of ex-slaves or outstanding emancipationists and in other fortunes even normal citizens offered their aid. Bing a secret organisation that interfered with federal Torahs that opposed the actions of assisting slaves to get away, it had no records. One of the greatest and outstanding people in this association was Harriet Tubman who after get awaying bondage returned to assist some of relations escape every bit good as other slaves. She helped approximately 150 people to get away from bondage ( McNamara 2014 ) . Harmonizing to an article from the New York Times in 1852, it reported of slaves invariably vanishing from Kentucky and Maryland all through to Ohio via an belowground web to Canada. The article outlined a program through which the blowout slaves could be recaptured. The instructions involved holding a prosecuting commission that could move on the guidelines of the president ( New York Times 1852 ) .

Abraham Lincoln’s election as president

Many provinces believed that Abraham Lincoln had the involvements of the northern people at bosom. As such they perceived him as being anti-slavery. However, during his nomination and election, his ideas refering bondage were described as being moderate. Nonetheless, South Carolina warned people about it and said that his positions would splinter in the event that he won.Consequently, after the election, Abraham Lincoln took over presidential term. Following to this, South Carolina gave out its papers of splintering from the brotherhood and subsequently after this, other six provinces including Mississippi besides separated from being in the brotherhood in early 1861.

President James Buchanan and the backdown quandary

President Buchanan was the predecessor of Abraham Lincoln and he tried to cover with the backdown crisis to no help. In the 19Thursdaycentury, presidents were non sworn into the office instantly. They had to wait until 4Thursdayof March after the twelvemonth of their election. Therefore, President Buchanan despite holding been a suffering President had to wait for four intolerable months fighting to regulate the state that was at the clip falling to pieces. It is possible that the brotherhood couldn’t have stayed together ; however, there were attempts of seeking to set in topographic point peace seminars and conferences between the Northerners and the Southerners. Regardless of all these attempts, slave federation continued to divide and go forth the brotherhood. When Abraham was sworn into office and giving his inaugural address, the state had divided into two and war was anticipated.

The Fort Sumter onslaught

The bondage struggle and the backdown at the terminal resulted into a firingwar in which cannons of the newly created Confederate disposal started pelting Fort Sumter in 1861 on the 12 of April. The federal ground forcess at the Fort were isolated by the clip South Carolina had withdrawn from the brotherhood. The freshly developed Confederate disposal continued to take a firm stand that the federal ground forces should evacuate the garrison but the national authorities did non adhere to their demands. The onslaught on this garrison did non ensue to casualties but instead set the land that the war had started.

In decision, despite the fact that the civil war led to the creative activity of many casualties, it was a consolidative factor as it brought the Americans together with an purpose of contending bondage and holding it abolished. In add-on, it is this experience that led to the development of United States into what it is today. A ace power province!


Foner, Eric. “ “ The Causes of the American Civil War: Recent Interpretations and New Directions. ”Civil War History, 2001: 197-214.

Kelly, Martin.About.Com ; American History.official website 2014. hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed April 25, 2014 ) .

McNamara, Robert. “ The Underground Railroad Helped Slaves Escape: Secret Network Led 1000s of Slaves to Freedom. ”About.Com.2014. hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed April 25, 2014 ) .

New York Times. “ RunAway Slaves. ”The New York Times, November 26, 1852.