As kids grow, they learn their moral values, and develop their ain individuality, through different methods like lying, as shown by the character, Huckleberry Finn in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. A prevarication, which is “ a false statement or action, clairvoyance. one made with purpose to lead on ” , is a cardinal point in the novel ( Agnes 827 ) . In the novel, Mark Twain has many different characters lie and deceive to demo the causes and effects of lying. Many of the characters lie so frequently that they do non recognize how their lying affects people. Some of them characters lie so frequently that they can non separate the difference between world and misrepresentation, and they start to lose their sense of self-respect ( Ethical motives 878 ) . Liing and misrepresentation, a motive that invariably occurs through the book, was shown by characters like Huckleberry Finn, the Duke, and the King that lie for many grounds. The Duke and King, who travel with Huckleberry Finn and Jim at one point, creates programs, and lies in order to derive net incomes by scamming people, and to flim-flam them out of their money. These lies influence Huckleberry Finn, and do him to recognize the cause and effects of lying. Over his escapades, and through his experiences, he starts to happen his true ego, while running off with his slave friend and father-figure, Jim. He besides learns about morality and where to pull the line between harmless and corrupt prevarication. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, lying causes the chief character, Huckleberry Finn ( Huck ) , to alter and recognize the moral effects of lying because of how he uses lies for white prevarications and gags, protection, and use.
At the beginning of his escapades, Huckleberry Finn uses his ability of lying as a tool of merriment and games in order to play buffooneries. Towards the beginning of the novel, he is about 13 old ages old, and harmonizing to Erikson ‘s phases of psychosocial development, he is get downing to develop the issue of individuality vs. function confusion, where he is seeking to happen his ego ( Blair-Broeker, Ernst 89 ) . His best friend, Tom Sawyer, who frequently influences him, gets Huckleberry Finn to get down
lying. At his age, he is get downing to distance from what household he has, and starts to trust on his equals, like Tom Sawyer to happen out what is normal for striplings his age ( Tomonari, Feiler 278 ) . He starts with these prevarications when Tom Sawyer starts to act upon him with the group of brigands. Subsequently, when he starts out his escapade with Jim, his early motivations for prevarication is for merriment because he is still infantile. Like other kids his age, he uses lies because he wants attending, and he finds it exciting ( Mitchell, Thompson, 288-89 ) . First, in the escapade, Huck pulls a buffoonery on Jim by puting a dead rattler where Jim slept. Huck says himself, “ I killed him, and curled him up on the pes of Jim ‘s cover, of all time so natural, believing there ‘d be some merriment when Jim found him at that place, ” ( Twain 63 ) . The rattler ‘s mate subsequently comes, and it bites Jim on his pes, doing him a immense sum of hurting. Even though he did non really lie at this point, Huckleberry Finn does non state Jim how the rattler got at that place, and alternatively Acts of the Apostless like he knows nil about the affair. Like most kids, his earliest prevarications are to get away penalty and to cover up what he did ( Stouthamer-Loeber 269 ) .
Subsequently on, in another point on their escapade, he makes Jim worry about him, because he goes losing in the fog while going on the river. After they reunite, Jim asks him what happens, but Huck insists on lying to him, and stating him that it was all a dream, and that none of it happened. Jim becomes disquieted, and tells him, “ When I got all wore out wid work, en wid de callin ‘ for you, en went to kip, my hear wuz minute ‘ broke bekase you wuz los ‘ , en I did n’t k’yer no minute ‘ what become er me en de raf ‘ . En when I wake up en mulct you back once more ‘ , all safe en soun ‘ , de cryings come en I could a got down on my articulatio genuss en buss ‘ yo ‘ pes I ‘s so grateful. En all you wuz believing ’bout wuz how you could do a sap uv ole Jim wid a prevarication. Dat truck dash is trash ‘ en rubbish is what people is dat puts soil on de caput Er dey fren ‘s nut makes ’em ashamed, ” ( Twain 102 ) . Because of Jim ‘s choler, he realizes that he should apologise because of the angst he caused for Jim. His ain moral logical thinking is altering from his ain involvements to other people ‘s involvements, and he starts to handle Jim better after this experience ( Developmental Psychology 144 ) . Through this game of prevarications, he learns that prevarications do no ever have a positive consequence, and starts to see the different vies of lying ( Mitchell, Thompson 288-89 ) .
In add-on to utilizing prevarications for buffooneries and gags, Huckleberry Finn besides starts lying in order to protect others. He largely protects Jim over their escapade, because he starts to develop strong bonds with Jim and because Jim is a runaway slave. Because of his protection over Jim, Huckleberry has struggles with society. He starts to inquiry and dispute the attitude and behaviour of his ain White cultural individuality, and decides to make things that most White persons would non make ( Developmental Identity 142 ) . Over the journey, Huck starts to oppugn whether he should assist Jim and make what is morally right, or follow the regulations of society, and turn Jim in. He becomes afraid of what could go on if Jim does do it to freedom, and besides becomes afraid of what would go on to him if people found out that he was assisting Jim. The struggle affects him so severely, he tells the reader, “ I got to experiencing so average and so suffering I most wished I was dead, ” ( Twain 104 ) .
As they are going to Cairo, Jim becomes excited that he is about to freedom, but Huck starts to experience even more guilty as they get closer to Cairo. “ Every clip he danced around and says, “ Dah ‘s Cairo! ” it went through me like a shooting, and I thought if it was Cairo I reckoned I would decease of misery, ” ( Twain 104-5 ) . When Jim and Huck believe they are in Cairo, Huck takes the canoe to do certain that they are in the right topographic point. As Huck starts to row, he encounters two white gentlemen, who are looking for blowouts. They tell Huck, “ Well, there ‘s five niggas run away tonight, up yonder above the caput of the crook. Is your adult male white or black? ” ( Twain 106 ) . Huck freezes, but replies, “ He ‘s white, ” in order to protect Jim ( Twain 106 ) . Later on down their journey, Jim gets captured and becomes no where to establish. When he finds out Jim gets captured, Huck has a struggle with himself about whether he should state Ms. Watson about her blowout slave in a missive, or seek to work out the job himself. He says, “ It was a close topographic point. I took it up, and held it in my manus. I was a-trembling, because I ‘d acquire to make up one’s mind, everlastingly, betwixt two things, and I knowed it. I studied a minute, kind of keeping my breath, and so says to myself. All right, so, “ I ‘ll travel to hell ” — and tore it up, ” ( Twain 249-50 ) . He decides that he should happen Jim and assist him, and decides that instead make what is morally right than what is ethically right. Harmonizing to Kohlberg ‘s moral logical thinking, he shows that his moral logical thinking degree is going high. Huck starts interrupting the regulations, and starts following cosmopolitan moral rules, and even faces interrupting the jurisprudence while being prepared for the effects ( Developmental Psychology 141 ) .
Huck learns about making what is morally right, he encounters the Duke and the King, and they show him how to victimize and pull strings people by lying. Like the definition says, the Duke and the King “ manage or command artfully or by astute usage of influence, frequently in an unjust manner, ” ( Agnes 874 ) . They come up with luxuriant programs to acquire guiltless people to give them money, and they run away to travel happen other people to victimize. When Huck foremost encounters the Duke and the King, they were running off from a town they merely scammed and begged Huckleberry Finn to allow them on the raft. As they get to cognize each other, the Duke and the King explicate their state of affairs, and state Huck of their yesteryear. They both lie to him about their backgrounds, and state him that they used to be trueness from England, and Huck realizes that their individualities as the Duke and the King are fabricated.
In the first town they reach, the Duke and the King happen out that the town is deserted, and that everyone has left to a spiritual meeting in the forests. While the King goes to the meeting, and claims that he is a former plagiarist, the Duke takes over the publishing imperativeness in the town, and makes 10 dollars. At the spiritual meeting, the King tells his bogus narrative of being a former plagiarist, and says that he will travel back to the ocean in order to go a missional. The spiritual crowd becomes truly enraptured, and they give him 80 dollars, and the misss all give him kisses. In this event, Huck is sing these different manipulative prevarications for the first clip. Before, he was used to the more simplistic prevarications, but he sees that these work forces are willing to lie to anyone, including spiritual people for money.Later the Duke, the King, and Huckleberry Finn end up in a town where a adult male named Peter Wilks has late died. The Duke and the King crowbar information from a chatty local who is about to go out of town, and they find out that the adult male wanted his two brothers from England to hold all of his belongings. They besides find out that the adult male, Peter Wilks, has non seen his brothers since childhood, and that their reaching is unsure. The Duke and the King come up with a program to feign to be the two brothers, with the Duke pretense to be the brother called William, who is deaf and deaf-and-dumb person, and the King as the other brother called Harvey. The town becomes overjoyed when the “ brothers ” come into town and the townspeople semen and help them into the town and get down sympathising with them. At this site, Huck says “ It was adequate to do a organic structure ashamed of the human race, ” ( Twain 191 ) .
This experience of them lead oning and feigning to be the brothers of a dead adult male utterly disgusts him and shows him how lying to pull strings is merely incorrect. When they get to the Wilks house, Peter ‘s girls manus the Duke and the King the will and missive that was left for the existent brothers, and they discover that Peter has left his brothers $ 3,000 and left his girls another $ 3,000. A close household friend claims them as fraud, but the eldest girl, Mary Jane dismisses his claim, and hands the Duke and the King all of the $ 6,000. At the site of the bogus reunion and cryings, once more, Huck is appalled by the site, and says, “ I ne’er see anything so disgustful, ” ( Twain 193 ) . The more clip he spends with the Duke and the King, he becomes even more disquieted that they do whatever they can to steal money. However, this experience helps develop his individuality, because he decides to make what he believes is right, and steal the money off from the Duke and the King, and acquire it back to the rightful proprietor of Mary Jane and her sisters. The Duke and the King inquiry him, and asks, “ Was you in there yesterday er last dark? ” and Huck lies to them and says, “ Honor bright, your stateliness, I ‘m stating you the truth. I hai n’t been anery your room since /miss Mary Jane took you and the duke and showed it to you, ” ( Twain 215 ) . The experience shows him that lying to deceive people intentionally is incorrect, but a prevarication to a condemnable, or people like the Duke and the King could sometimes be necessary, ( Ethical motives 878 ) .
Over The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn develops his ain individuality and learns about how different types of prevarications can ache and impact the people around him. He learns through buffooneries that no affair how funny the gag is, person could acquire injured as seen with Jim and when he gets bitten by the rattler. He learns to judge the purpose and result of a prevarication like other kids do, and learns the effects of what could go on if he lied ( Mitchell, Thompson 289 ) . He besides learns to get down sing others, and even shows some quality of holding a high moral concluding degree ( Developmental Psychology 141 ) . Through society and his experiences with Jim, he learns that some white prevarications can besides protect people every bit long as it does non take up to more prevarications that would do more jobs ( Ethical motives 378 ) . Unlike most people who either draw the line between lying is immoral or morally incorrect, he draws the line between harmful and harmless prevarication. His motivations for lying alterations over clip, and alterations from lying to get away penalty to lying to cover up for Jim, merely like how other kids change their motivations over clip ( Stouthamer-Loeber 269 ) . Through the Duke and the King, he learns the difference between immoral and morally right prevarication. He sees that lying to deceive people and victimize them out of their money is absolutely incorrect, and that lying like them would take to appropriate effects. Huck develops the ability to divide prevarications from wickedness and duty, and learns the value of his society ( Ethics 878, Tomonari, Feiler 278 ) . Because of his escapade down the journey, he finds his ain individuality after seeking out legion functions and learns the moral causes and effects of white prevarications, lying for protection, and lying for use ( Blair-Broker, Ernst 89 ) .